Quercetin powder (By zymotechnics)
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Molecular Formula: C15H10O7
STORAGE:Store in a cool and dry place. Keep away from direct sunlight and heat.
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Quercetin powder (117-39-5) video
Quercetin powder (117-39-5) Base Information
|Synonyms||Kvercetin; Meletin; NCI-C60106; NSC 9219; NSC 9221; Quercetin; Quercetine; Quercetol; Quertine; Sophoretin; Xanthaurine.|
|Molecular Weight||302.238 g/mol|
|Half Life||11 hours|
|Solubility||Soluble in DMSO, not in water|
|Storage Condition||Dry, dark and at 0 – 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).|
|Application||Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid with potential chemopreventive activity.|
Quercetin: What is it and Its Benefits
Antioxidants are commonly used in supplements for their ability to fight oxidative stress, even at the cellular level, in the body. Several compounds in supplements have strong antioxidant properties, an important one being Quercetin.
What is Quercetin?
Quercetin is a flavonoid and pigment that is found naturally in several plants, fruits, and vegetables. This bitter flavored plant flavonol is used in drinks and supplements for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that help fight off inflammation and oxidative stress in the body.
Antioxidant properties of Quercetin are important as they prevent the development of free radical or unstable compounds of oxygen, that then partake in chemical reactions that are harmful to the body. Most of the other benefits of Quercetin develop as a result of the antioxidant properties of the pigment.
As a flavonoid, Quercetin is the most abundantly found compound, with an average person consuming 25 mg to 50 mg, per day. Quercetin is also a naturally occurring polar auxin transport inhibitor, which is the main transport mechanism for plant hormone, auxin. This transport system is important for proper plant development and the polarity of the plants.
Once ingested, quercetin stays in the human body for approximately one hour to two hours, with a bioavailability of the compound ranging between 0 to 50 percent. The metabolism and bioavailability of the compound are highly variable from person to person. Moreover, there is a significant variance in the effects the compound produces, in vitro and in vivo. Given that the properties of the compound change significantly inside the body, researchers have hypothesized that the benefits of the plant flavanol that are observed in vitro, may not be seen in vivo. However, further research is required before this conclusion can be widely accepted and guideline changes can be implemented.
Mechanism of Action of Quercetin
Quercetin is found naturally in food and is believed to play an important role in different biological activities. Quercetin is used in different supplements and beverages due to its different mechanisms of action, all of which produce different benefits in the human body. In fact, quercetin is widely used as a supplement for metabolic and endocrinological benefits.
Quercetin plays an important role in the management of diabetes as it improves the utilization of glucose in the peripheral cells all the while inhibiting glucose absorption in the intestinal cells. Moreover, quercetin is believed to have an effect on the sensitization of cells towards insulin, and the secretion of insulin in the body. Through these mechanisms of action, quercetin powder is able to manage and treat diabetes mellitus type 2.
The plant flavanol is also beneficial in the management of obesity and is believed to significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus in obese patients. It helps patients lose weight by inhibiting the fat synthesis in the body and reducing lipid peroxidation. Moreover, quercetin has the ability to reduce platelet aggregation and capillary permeability, which not only helps manage obesity but also reduces the risk of developing obesity-related comorbidities in the obese population.
Moreover, quercetin has an impact on several signaling pathways in the body, especially those involved in the inflammation, inhibiting them, resulting in decreased skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in obese patients. Apart from that, this mechanism is also effective in preventing inflammation and sarcopenia, usually seen in obesity.
Although quercetin has a massive effect on obesity and associated disorders, the main mechanism of action is to fight oxidative stress through its antioxidant properties. According to different kinds of researches, quercetin powder directly affects the antioxidant enzymes by reducing the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the body. This is necessary for the proper activity of the enzymes. Antioxidant properties of this flavonoid are also dependant on the increased expression of the P13K/PKB signaling pathway, which is another signaling pathway that quercetin impacts. The resultant antioxidant properties are not only beneficial in fighting oxidative stress but also important in the protection of ascorbic acid therapy.
Another important mechanism of action of quercetin is the effect this compound has on parasites. The plant flavonol has a potent anti-parasitic effect through the inhibition of several important parasitic enzymes, namely, heat-shock protein (HSP), acetylcholinesterase, DNA topoisomerase, and kinase. It also destroys the mitochondrial function of different parasitic organisms such as Leishmanias, Plasmodium, and Trypanosoma.
Quercetin is a natural antioxidant that is not only effective in treating the damage caused by oxidative stress but also is able to fight the results of antioxidant damage. The latter is an effect of this compound that is especially seen in the central nervous system, hence why quercetin is used as a cognition-enhancing supplement.
Foods Rich in Quercetin
Quercetin is found naturally in different fruits and vegetables, all in different quantities. The dietary sources of quercetin are mentioned below, along with the amount of quercetin in them, in mg/100g:
|Raw Lovage Leaves||170|
|Dock like Sorrel (Rumex)||86|
|Hungarian Wax Pepper||51|
It is important to note that the concentration of quercetin in these foods may differ based on how and where the food is grown. Organic compounds are believed to have a relatively higher concentration of quercetin. Consuming these foods provides the body with the quercetin required with raw capers containing the highest concentration of the compound and black plums containing the least. However, for more concentrated levels, quercetin powder can be consumed.
Application of Quercetin
Quercetin powder is a widely used supplement that is popular for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used by people suffering from heart disorders or arthritis, bone disorders, recurrent infections, and diabetes. Due to the compound’s in vitro effects on obesity and obesity-related problems, quercetin powder is being used as a supplement by obese patients, in hopes of managing their obesity. There are some reported uses of quercetin powder amongst cancer patients as well.
Benefits of Quercetin
Quercetin is a pleiotropic compound with multiple mechanisms of action, which allows the plant flavonol to also have multiple benefits. There are many hypothesized and in vitro benefits of the compound, however, only a few have been proven in vivo, scientifically. Currently, further research is performed on the compound to analyze and assess if it has any other benefits.
The beneficial properties of quercetin powder that have been proven and are backed by scientific evidence include:
According to recent studies, quercetin reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body, that are produced as a result of exposure to environmental toxins. It is this effect of quercetin powder that is believed to be responsible for antioxidant properties, along with the effect of the compound on glutathione in the liver. Furthermore, it increases the activity of the P13K/PKB signaling pathway, which exaggerates the antioxidant properties of the plant flavonol.
Inflammation, in controlled settings, is able to fight off infections and aids in the proper functioning of the body. However, when rampant, it can be harmful to the body as it can affect the normal functioning of several organ systems. Inflammation in the body is believed to increase as a result of increased levels of ROS, and a reduction in those levels by quercetin also helps decrease inflammation in the body.
Moreover, studies conducted on markers of inflammation, in vitro, showed a significant reduction in levels of two specific markets, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). This further proves the anti-inflammatory properties of the compound.
A clinical trial was performed on women with rheumatoid arthritis who were then given 500mg of quercetin powder. The results of the study showed a significant decrease in morning stiffness, morning pain, and pain after exercise in these women with quercetin supplementation. As rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disorder that causes pain through inflammation, reduction of pain in these patients is indicative of the anti-inflammatory properties of the compound. This study also showed a reduction in TNF-alpha and IL-6 inflammation markers in these women.
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the compound are also responsible for the anti-cancer properties as both of them are hallmarks of cancer growth and development. In a study performed on animal models, quercetin supplementation was found to activate pro-apoptotic markers such as Bcl in the body to induce cell death in cancer cells in the prostate. Although several studies have been performed on different cancers in the body, that affect different organ systems, only the effects against prostate cancers have been followed through with studies on animal models.
For the longest time, coffee is believed to have a neuroprotective effect as studies showed it to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. It was believed that the caffeine in the coffee was responsible for this effect however, further research showed that it was the result of the effects of quercetin.
Following this finding, a study was performed on animal models with Alzheimer’s’ disease where they were given quercetin injections. These injections were shown to reverse several Alzheimer markers and the condition of the mice began to improve as well. They started to do better on learning tests, however, these results were only seen in mice in the early phases of the disease. At late stages, no therapeutic effects of quercetin were seen.
Potent anti-allergy treatment
Allergies develop due to mass histamine release in the body, as a result of exposure to the allergens. Histamine is an inflammation-inducing compound in the body and the anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin are effective in treating allergies. Testing this hypothesis, a study was performed on animal models, and this study showed that quercetin treatment significantly reduced anaphylactic shock in mice with a peanut allergy on exposure to peanuts.
Quercetin is believed to improve blood flow through the blood vessels by targeting the cells in the blood vessel and preventing lipid peroxidation, which is a necessary step for atherosclerosis formation. Atherosclerotic plaques are one of the most common causes of cardiac disorders, especially myocardial infarction or heart attack. As quercetin ingestion in the form of fruits and powder inhibits the steps necessary for atherosclerosis formation, it is believed to be a cardioprotective agent.
Quercetin has potent anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties that work against almost all of the microorganisms in these categories. The vitamin C often found in quercetin supplements, along with the plant flavanol itself boosts the immune system, resulting in increased protection against infections.
A recent study found that quercetin could potentially be a prophylactic agent against the influenza virus as it interacts with the HA2 subunit of the viral structure and inhibits its entry into the cells. In the early phases of the infection, quercetin has an inhibitory effect on the virus.
A potential anti-hypertensive therapeutic agent
Quercetin has a vasodilatory effect on the blood vessels in the body, which results in decreased blood pressure and increased blood flow. This effect of the compound is why it is believed to have the potential to be medication against hypertension.
Manage blood sugar levels
One of the main functions of quercetin is the management of blood glucose levels and it has multiple mechanisms of action through which it performs this function. It causes the periphery to utilize glucose while also affecting the insulin levels in the body, to manage the levels of blood glucose. This benefit of quercetin has been proven through in vitro studies on cells, studies on animal models, and human participants, hence, it is a widely accepted benefit of the flavanoid.
It is also believed to have these benefits, however, not enough research has been performed on the matter:
Research performed on animal models and in vitro cells has shown that the compound may be able to slow the aging process and even reverse it in aged cells, however, the lack of human studies on this topic does not yet support the use of quercetin powder as an anti-aging agent.
Increased stamina and endurance
Several studies performed on human participants have shown a slight increase in teg stamina, endurance, and athletic abilities of athletes and bodybuilders. Since the results are quite small, scientists have called for further research before this benefit can be widely accepted.
Dosages of Quercetin
Quercetin is relatively safe to use, the chemical compound that can be easily derived, to an extent, through daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. If taken in a supplement form, the general dosage of the compound is 500mg per day, although doses as high as 1000mg can be used.
Moreover, quercetin supplements usually contain ingredients other than quercetin powder, such as Vitamin C powder, to increase the absorption of the compound in the body. This is because quercetin itself has very poor bioavailability.
Side Effects of Quercetin
Quercetin can be found in many fruits and vegetables, hence why it is considered to be a safe compound. It can be consumed by children and pregnant women, in the form of fruit. Moreover, quercetin powder does not have any reported toxicities or serious adverse effects which, along with several pieces of research, have led to its classification as a safe compound.
If used in the recommended dosage of 50 mg to 100 mg, quercetin powder does not have many side effects or complications associated with it. However, doses higher than 1000mg or regular use of 1000mg of the compound can result in mild side effects such as headaches, nausea, and a tingling sensation.
- Wu, W., Li, R., Li, X., He, J., Jiang, S., Liu, S., & Yang, J. (2015). Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry. Viruses, 8(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/v8010006
- Lee, M., McGeer, E. G., & McGeer, P. L. (2016). Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee. Neurobiology of Aging, 46, 113–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.06.015
- Abharzanjani, F., Afshar, M., Hemmati, M., & Moossavi, M. (2017). Short-term High Dose of Quercetin and Resveratrol Alters Aging Markers in Human Kidney Cells. International journal of preventive medicine, 8, 64. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_139_17
- Kressler, J., Millard-Stafford, M., & Warren, G. L. (2011). Quercetin and endurance exercise capacity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 43(12), 2396–2404. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822495a7
- Anand David, A. V., Arulmoli, R., & Parasuraman, S. (2016). Overviews of Biological Importance of Quercetin: A Bioactive Flavonoid. Pharmacognosy reviews, 10(20), 84–89. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.194044