Sotalol powder is a beta-blocker that affects the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and veins). Sotalol is used to help keep the heart beating normally in people with certain heart rhythm disorders of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart that allow blood to flow out of the heart). Sotalol is used in people with ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Sotalol may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
02 Sotalol powder (3930-20-9) video
03 Sotalol powder (3930-20-9) Base Information
|Synonyms||4′-(1-hydroxy-2-(isopropylamino)ethyl)methane, sulfonanilide, Sotalol, Sotalolo, Sotalolum,β-cardone|
|Molecular Weight||272.363 g/mol|
|Melting Point||206.5-207 °C|
|Appearance||white to off-white|
|Half Life||10-20 hours|
|Solubility||Soluble (5510 mg/L)|
|Storage Condition||tore sotalol at 77°F (25°C). You can store it for a short time in temperatures as low as 59°F (15°C) and as high as 86°F (30°C).|
|Application||Sotalol is a medication used to treat and prevent abnormal heart rhythms|
04 Sotalol powder General Description
Sotalol powder is indicated to treat life threatening ventricular arrhytmias and maintain normal sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter.Label There are also oral solutions and intravenous injections indicated for patients requiring sotalol, but for whom a tablet would not be appropriate.
Sotalol powder is a competitive inhibitor of the rapid potassium channel. This inhibition lengthens the duration of action potentials and the refractory period in the atria and ventricles. The inhibition of rapid potassium channels is increases as heart rate decreases, which is why adverse effects like torsades de points is more likely to be seen at lower heart rates.6 L-sotalol also has beta adrenergic receptor blocking activity seen above plasma concentrations of 800ng/L. The beta blocking ability of sotalol further prolongs action potentials. D-sotalol does not have beta blocking activity but also reduces a patient’s heart rate while standing or exercising. These actions combine to produce a negative inotropic effect that reduces the strength of contractility of muscle cells in the heart. Extension of the QT interval is also adversely associated with the induction of arrhythmia in patients.
05 Sotalol (3930-20-9) powder History
Sotalol powder was first synthesized in 1960 by A. A. Larsen of Mead-Johnson Pharmaceutical. It was originally recognized for its blood pressure lowering effects and its ability to reduce the symptoms of angina. It was made available in the United Kingdom and France in 1974, Germany in 1975, and Sweden in 1979. It became widely used in the 1980s. In the 1980s, its antiarrhythmic properties were discovered. The United States approved the drug in 1992.
06 Sotalol (3930-20-9) Mechanism Of Action
Sotalol non-selectively binds to both β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors preventing activation of the receptors by their stimulatory ligand (catecholamines). Without the binding of this ligand to the receptor, the G-protein complex associated with the receptor cannot activate production of cyclic AMP, which is responsible for turning on calcium inflow channels. A decrease in activation of calcium channels will therefore result in a decrease in intracellular calcium. In heart cells, calcium is important in generating electrical signals for heart muscle contraction, as well as generating force for this contraction. In consideration of these important properties of calcium, two conclusions can be drawn. First, with less calcium in the cell, there is a decrease in electrical signals for contraction, thus allowing time for the heart’s natural pacemaker to rectify arrhythmic contractions. Secondly, lower calcium means a decrease in strength and rate of the contractions, which can be helpful in treatment of abnormally fast heart rates.
Type III antiarrhythmic action
Sotalol also acts on potassium channels and causes a delay in relaxation of the ventricles. By blocking these potassium channels, sotalol inhibits efflux of K+ ions, which results in an increase in the time before another electrical signal can be generated in ventricular myocytes. This increase in the period before a new signal for contraction is generated, helps to correct arrhythmias by reducing the potential for premature or abnormal contraction of the ventricles but also prolongs the frequency of ventricular contraction to help treat tachycardia.
07 Sotalol (3930-20-9) Application
Sotalol is used to treat abnormal heart rhythms such as ventricular arrhythmias (for example, ventricular tachycardia) that are life threatening and atrial fibrillation. It is not used for less severe abnormal heart rhythms.
Sotalol should not be used in patients with bronchial asthma, sinus bradycardia, second and third degree AV block, unless a functioning pacemaker is present.
It also should not be used in people with congenital or acquired long QT syndromes, cardiogenic shock, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, and people who are allergic to sotalol.
08 Sotalol (3930-20-9) More research
According to the U.S. FDA, sotalol can be validly used to maintain a normal heart rhythm in people with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (e.g., ventricular tachycardia), or very symptomatic atrial fibrillation or flutter. Due to the risk of serious side effects, the FDA states that sotalol should generally be reserved for people whose ventricular arrhythmias are life-threatening, or whose fibrillation/flutter cannot be resolved using the Valsalva maneuver or another simple method.
09 Sotalol (3930-20-9) Document Download
10 Sotalol (3930-20-9) Reference
- Hanyok JJ: Clinical pharmacokinetics of sotalol. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Aug 12;72(4):19A-26A. [PubMed:8346722]
- Valdes SO, Miyake CY, Niu MC, de la Uz CM, Asaki SY, Landstrom AP, Schneider AE, Rusin CG, Patel R, Lam WW, Kim JJ: Early experience with intravenous sotalol in children with and without congenital heart disease. Heart Rhythm. 2018 Dec;15(12):1862-1869. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2018.07.010. Epub 2018 Jul 10. [PubMed:30003959]
- Staudacher I, Illg C, Chai S, Deschenes I, Seehausen S, Gramlich D, Muller ME, Wieder T, Rahm AK, Mayer C, Schweizer PA, Katus HA, Thomas D: Cardiovascular pharmacology of K2P17.1 (TASK-4, TALK-2) two-pore-domain K(+) channels. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2018 Oct;391(10):1119-1131. doi: 10.1007/s00210-018-1535-z. Epub 2018 Jul 14. [PubMed:30008082]
- 01. Overview
- 02. Sotalol powder (3930-20-9) video
- 03. Sotalol powder (3930-20-9) Base Information
- 04. Sotalol powder General Description
- 05. Sotalol (3930-20-9) powder History
- 06. Sotalol (3930-20-9) Mechanism Of Action
- 07. Sotalol (3930-20-9) Application
- 08. Sotalol (3930-20-9) More research
- 09. Sotalol (3930-20-9) Document Download
- 10. Sotalol (3930-20-9) Reference