Lithium Orotate (5266-20-6)

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Name:Lithium Orotate

CAS:5266-20-6

Molecular Formula:C5H3LiN2O4

STORAGE:Store in a cool and dry place. Keep away from direct sunlight and heat.

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Lithium Orotate (5266-20-6) video

 

Lithium Orotate (5266-20-6) Base Information

Name Lithium Orotate
CAS 5266-20-6
Purity 98%
Chemical name OROTIC ACID LITHIUM SALT MONOHYDRATE
Synonyms lithium 2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylate; 4-Pyrimidinecarboxylic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-, lithium salt (1:1)
Molecular Formula C5H3LiN2O4
Molecular Weight 162.0297
Melting Point ≥300 °C
InChI Key IZJGDPULXXNWJP-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Form powder
Appearance White to off-white crystalline powder
Half Life /
Solubility /
Storage Condition −20°C
Application Over-the-counter lithium orotate is promoted as a health supplement for use as a low-dose source of lithium; however, very limited clinical evidence exists to support use. Noncontrolled studies have examined the use of low-dose lithium orotate in the treatment of alcoholism, migraines, and depression associated with bipolar disorder.
Testing Document Available

 

What is Lithium Orotate?

Lithium orotate is a compound made of lithium and orotate or orotic acid. It has been gaining popularity as a supplement for treating many kinds of mental health problems. Lithium is an element found in combined form in nature. Orotate is a natural substance produced in the body. In some alternative medicine, lithium orotate is used as an alternative to lithium to treat mania in those with bipolar disorder.

Lithium orotate has a chemical formula of C5H3LiN2O4. The chemical name of lithium orotate is orotic acid lithium salt monohydrate. It is available as a white to off-white colored crystalline powder.

Lithium orotate is different from prescription lithium carbonate as it contains pure lithium combined with orotic acid. The belief is that this allows an increase in the body’s uptake of lithium.

Lithium orotate may help treat bipolar disorders, mood swings, alcoholism, anger and aggression, attention deficit disorder, depression, and anxiety. However, there is limited clinical evidence to support these facts well.

 

How does Lithium Orotate work?

The lithium in lithium orotate is an alkali metal that exists in nature in combination with other substances. In lithium orotate, lithium is bonded noncovalently to an orotate ion. This combination dissociates in solution to make free ions.

Orotate is a precursor in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines in the body. Orotate gets released from the mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). After this, it converts to Uridine monophosphate (UMP) by the cytoplasmic UMP synthase enzyme.

Lithium has gained enough popularity in treating bipolar disorder (BD). BD consists of a loss of neurotrophic effects and results in cellular injury in the brain. Lithium has been used as a standard treatment for BD for over 60 years and is very effective in treating the symptoms of BD. It also minimizes the risk of suicidal behaviors.

There is not enough information about exactly how lithium and lithium orotate works in the body. One of the possibilities is that lithium can strengthen the nerve cell connections in the brain that control and regulate mood, thinking, and behavior. Lithium can induce different biochemical and molecular effects on the neurotransmitter and receptor-mediated signaling. It can also affect the signal transduction cascade, hormonal and circadian regulation, ion transport, and gene expression [1].

Lithium may be able to activate the neurotrophic pathways that are involved in the development of BD. Lithium may also protect the nerves and brain. It may also be able to slow down the advances of neuronal loss in the brain.

A research paper based on the data collected from 1978 to 1987 stated that crime, arrest, and suicidal behavior were much less in the counties where the amount of lithium in the drinking water was high [2]. It showed that lithium is capable of lowering aggressive behaviors, behavioral alterations and improves attention to stimuli.

Orotic acid was first thought to be an essential vitamin needed in animal nutrition. It was also called vitamin b13. It is synthesized by mammals during the synthesis of pyrimidines using the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis.

In humans and other organisms, orotic acid is manufactured by the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase which transforms dihydroorotate into orotic acid. It can improve the metabolism of folic acid and vitamin B12. Orotic acid is found in milk produced by cows and dairy products derived from milk. It is necessary for the development of the central nervous system [3]. Orotic acid can also improve the conditions of the hypertrophic heart.

Lithium orotate is able to release lithium-ion in the brain and the plasma, as other lithium compounds can. However, it has less toxicity compared to those other compounds.

The high dose of lithium in lithium carbonate can depress the dopamine release, causing an elevation of moods, especially in bipolar disorder. However, lithium orotate needs only a small amount of drug to give similar effects.

Lithium orotate increases the amount of intake of dopamine and norepinephrine into the synaptosomes. The lithium in it stops synaptosomes from sending signals to release hormones. This action may help to control the unpredictable actions seen in bipolar patients. It may also be able to suppress the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) enzyme [4]. This helps to reduce mania.

Lithium orotate can stimulate serotonin synthesis and provide an antidepressant-like effect. It may be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter cells more easily and readily than lithium carbonate.

 

History of Lithium Orotate

Lithium orotate’s base ingredient lithium has long been used for its curative abilities. This can be dated back to the ancient Greeks. The compound lithium orotate’s use started in the 1970s when Hans Niepier proposed that orotic acid was a superior carrier compound that could transport inorganic ions across biological membranes.

In 1976 however, it was shown that lithium concentrations in the brains of the mice on lithium carbonate and lithium chloride were not statistically different from the ones that were provided with lithium orotate. Then in 1978, it was shown that lithium orotate powder helped to increase the lithium levels three-fold higher in the brains of mice compared to lithium carbonate. However, in 1979, concerns were raised about the potential for increased damage to the kidneys due to lithium orotate due to the excessive dosage that was being used in the previous studies [5].

Currently, lithium orotate is available as a supplement that can be bought as a counter medication with no prescription. It has not received approval for use from the FDA yet.

 

Benefits of Lithium Orotate

There are several benefits of lithium orotate. However, many of these lack sufficient proof about their uses.

Some of the benefits of lithium orotate are:

 

Effect on Alcoholism

A study was conducted on 42 alcoholic patients. They were treated with lithium orotate during an alcohol rehabilitation program for six months. It was shown that lithium orotate supplementation showed improvement in the symptoms of alcoholism [6]. Thus, lithium orotate powder may help in treating alcoholism.

 

Effect on Bipolar Disorder

Lithium orotate may help treat bipolar disorder. A clinical trial was conducted where 150mg of the daily dose of lithium orotate was given to patients with bipolar disorder [7]. It was given 4 to 5 times a week. This treatment showed that there was a reduction in manic and depressive symptoms in these patients. Lithium orotate can cross the blood-brain barrier easier compared to other lithium drugs. Hence it may prove to be useful in treating bipolar disorder.

 

Effect on Immunity

Lithium orotate may help to increase immunity in the individual due to the immunomodulatory effects of lithium. It also contains neuroprotective and antiviral properties, hence protecting the individual from diseases.

 

Effect on Migraine

Lithium orotate powder may help to relieve the symptoms of migraines and give relief from headaches.

 

Effect on Depression

Lithium orotate powder may also help in depression. It may be able to lower the symptoms of low mood and decrease suicidal ideations.

 

Effect on Cognitive Function

Lithium orotate has neuroprotective abilities and may be able to boost cognitive function. The lithium in it can increase the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and helps in the proper functioning of the brain.

 

Effect on Aging

Lithium has antioxidant properties. Hence, lithium orotate may slow down the aging process and promote longevity.

 

Side effects of Lithium Orotate

Like most other medications, lithium orotate also has its side effects. This is due to this substance acting on the body as a whole and not just one system. Most of these side effects occur due to overdosing on the medication. There is also an inherent need to check for lithium levels in the body as too much use of this substance can cause lithium toxicity. So it is necessary to keep a constant watch while using lithium orotate.

Some of the major side effects of lithium orotate are:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Tremor
  • Frequent urination
  • Persistent Thirst
  • Lower kidney function
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Low blood pressure
  • Lithium toxicity

 

Drug Interactions with Lithium Orotate

The lithium in lithium orotate can interact with some medications and cause some problems.

The drugs that could interact with lithium in lithium orotate are:

ACE inhibitors — These drugs could increase the serum lithium levels and cause toxicity.

Anticonvulsants — May increase the side effects of lithium orotate.

Antidepressants — May increase the levels of serotonin and lithium in the body.

Dextromethorphan — These drugs could cause an increase in side effects of lithium.

Diuretics — These drugs can increase sodium reabsorption which then decreases the clearance of lithium.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs — These drugs can lower the rate of lithium excretion.

Acetazolamide —The absorption of lithium and lithium orotate can be decreased when combined with this drug

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) — Taking lithium with these medications can cause the rise of serotonin levels. This could lead to serious side effects such as heart problems, tremors, anxiety, etc.

 

Where to Buy Lithium Orotate in 2021?

You can buy lithium orotate powder directly from the lithium orotate manufacturer company. It is available in packages of 1kg per bag and 25kg per drum. However, the amount can be customized according to the user’s needs. It needs to be stored at a temperature of −20°C in an airtight container, away from the sunlight and humidity. This is to ensure that it does not react with other chemicals in the environment.

This product is made with the best ingredients, under the most hygienic conditions to make sure that you get only the finest product.

 

References Cited

  1. Machado‐Vieira, R., Manji, H. K., & Zarate Jr, C. A. (2009). The role of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder: convergent evidence for neurotrophic effects as a unifying hypothesis. Bipolar disorders, 11, 92-109.
  2. Schrauzer, G. N., & Shrestha, K. P. (1990). Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides, and arrests related to drug addictions. Biological trace element research, 25(2), 105-113.
  3. Löffler, M., Carrey, E. A., & Zameitat, E. (2015). Orotic acid, more than just an intermediate of pyrimidine de novo synthesis. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 42(5), 207-219.
  4. Freland, L., & Beaulieu, J. M. (2012). Inhibition of GSK3 by lithium, from single molecules to signaling networks. Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 5, 14.
  5. Pacholko, A. G., & Bekar, L. K. (2021). Lithium orotate: A superior option for lithium therapy?. Brain and Behavior.
  6. Löffler, M., Carrey, E. A., & Zameitat, E. (2015). Orotic acid, more than just an intermediate of pyrimidine de novo synthesis. Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 42(5), 207-219.
  7. Sartori, H. E. (1986). Lithium orotate in the treatment of alcoholism and related conditions. Alcohol, 3(2), 97-100.

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