Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) powder is a cofactor that is central to metabolism. Found in all living cells, NAD powder is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide. NAD powder exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form, abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively.
|Name||Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) powder|
|Chemical name||beta-Diphosphopyridine nucleotide|
|Molecular Weight||663.4 g/mol|
|Melting Point||160 °C (320 °F; 433 K)|
|Solubility||Water Solubility 2.14 mg/mL|
|Storage Condition||in a sealed airtight container, keep the air out, protected from heat, light and humidity.|
|Application||may help reverse signs of aging and lower the risk of many chronic diseases|
NAD powder, short for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A coenzyme that occurs in many living cells and functions as an electron acceptor. NAD powder is used alternately with NADH as an oxidizing or reducing agent in metabolic reactions.
The coenzyme NAD+ was first discovered by the British biochemists Arthur Harden and William John Young in 1906.They noticed that adding boiled and filtered yeast extract greatly accelerated alcoholic fermentation in unboiled yeast extracts. They called the unidentified factor responsible for this effect a coferment. Through a long and difficult purification from yeast extracts, this heat-stable factor was identified as a nucleotide sugar phosphate by Hans von Euler-Chelpin. In 1936, the German scientist Otto Heinrich Warburg showed the function of the nucleotide coenzyme in hydride transfer and identified the nicotinamide portion as the site of redox reactions.
Vitamin precursors of NAD+ were first identified in 1938, when Conrad Elvehjem showed that liver has an “anti-black tongue” activity in the form of nicotinamide. Then, in 1939, he provided the first strong evidence that niacin is used to synthesize NAD+.In the early 1940s, Arthur Kornberg was the first to detect an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway.In 1949, the American biochemists Morris Friedkin and Albert L. Lehninger proved that NADH linked metabolic pathways such as the citric acid cycle with the synthesis of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation.In 1958, Jack Preiss and Philip Handler discovered the intermediates and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of NAD+; salvage synthesis from nicotinic acid is termed the Preiss-Handler pathway. In 2004, Charles Brenner and co-workers uncovered the nicotinamide riboside kinase pathway to NAD+
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) powder is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The cofactor is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. However, it is also used in other cellular processes, most notably a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Because of the importance of these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) powder acts as fuel for many key biological processes, such as:
1) Converting food into energy
2) Repairing damaged DNA
3) Fortifying cells’ defense systems
4) Setting your body’s internal clock or circadian rhythm
Because most research on Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) powder comes from animal studies, no clear-cut conclusions can be made about its effectiveness for humans. Here are some potential health benefits of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) powder:
NAD+ plays a key role in helping your brain cells age well.
Within brain cells, NAD+ helps control the production of PGC-1-alpha, a protein that appears to help protect cells against oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function. Researchers believe both oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function are linked to age-related brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
Aging is a major risk factor for heart disease, which is the world’s leading cause of death. It can cause blood vessels like your aorta to become thicker, stiffer and less flexible. Such changes can raise blood pressure levels and make your heart work harder.
In animals, raising NAD+ helped reverse age-related changes to arteries
High NAD+ levels help protect against DNA damage and oxidative stress, which are linked to cancer development
Raising NAD+ levels helped improve muscle function, strength and endurance in older mice