Pterostilbene powder (537-42-8)
Pterostilbene is a stilbenoid chemically related to resveratrol. It belongs to the group of phytoalexins, agents produced by plants to fight infections.Based on animal studies it is thought to exhibit anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-hypertriglyceridemia properties, as well as the ability to fight off and reverse cognitive decline. It is believed that the compound also has anti-diabetic properties, but so far very little has been studied.
Manufacture: Batch Production
Package: 1KG/bag, 25KG/drum
Pterostilbene powder (537-42-8) video
Pterostilbene is say better than resveratrol. They call it dragon’s blood, or even the fountain of youth. Do you want to know more about Pterostilbene? Here are the 37 FAQ you need to know:
1. What is Pterostilbene?
Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenol, a type of molecule that occurs in plants. It is part of the stilbene group of compounds and the main antioxidant component of blueberries. In plants, it serves a defensive antimicrobial and often antioxidative role.
Pterostilbene was first discovered in 1977 by Langcake and Pryce and has been studied for its antioxidant properties and potential health benefits.
Pterostilbene is chemically related to resveratrol, another popular dietary supplement; some studies suggest that it may be more useful for health than its close relation, sometimes giving rise to the suggestion that it may be a “better resveratrol”.
The main benefits of Pterostilbene can be summarized as follows:
|1||Pterostilbene is a natural substance found in small quantities in vegetables and fruits such as blueberries.|
|2||Pterostilbene is a small molecule that is better than resveratrol in terms of absorption and stability.|
|3||Pterostilbene extended lifespan in various organisms.|
|4||Pterostilbene can reduce inflammation.|
|5||Pterostilbene can improve DNA repair.|
|6||Pterostilbene can activate sirtuins, which are enzymes that repair DNA,improve metabolism and can extend healthspan and lifespan.|
|7||Pterostilbene can improve brain functioning and can protect the brain.|
|8||Pterostilbene can reduce protein accumulation, which is one of the drivers of aging.|
|9||Pterostilbene activates AMPK, an important enzyme that can protect cells against aging.|
|10||10. Pterostilbene increases the production of powerful antioxidant enzymes, protecting the cells against oxidative damage.|
2. What is Pterostilbene powder?
Pterostilbene powder is the raw material of Pterostilbene with white colour.
Pterostilbene powder (537-42-8) Base Information
|Molecular Weight||256.3 g/mol|
|Melting Point||89-92 °C|
|Storage Condition||protect from light, 2-8°C|
|Application||Pre-workout, bodybuilding supplements,cosmetics|
3. What is Pterostilbene mechanism of action?
Pterostilbene is a polyphenol, a type of molecule that occurs in plants, particularly small berries and nuts. Blueberries are a particularly rich source of pterostilbene; although it is found in grapes, pterostilbene (unlike its cousin resveratrol) doesn’t survive the wine-making process.
What’s a polyphenol? “Phenol” refers to a certain chemical structure (in this case, a hydroxyl group linked to a benzene ring); “poly” just means the molecules have more than one of the structure. One of polyphenols’ main jobs is to help the plant fight off pathogens. When eaten by humans, polyphenols may serve as powerful antioxidants.
Scientists have been aware of phenols since the early 19th century — Joseph Lister, the pioneer of antiseptic surgery, reported on one phenol’s disinfectant properties in 1867 — though the term “polyphenol” didn’t have its first recorded use until 1894.
As with the rest of polyphenols, researchers don’t fully understand how pterostilbene works. Dr. Jose M. Estrela, a professor of physiology at the University of Valencia (Spain) who has studied pterostilbene says “the good thing is that pterostilbene works, but the bad thing is that we cannot fully explain its potential health benefits with the information that we have.”
4. What is Pterostilbene use for?
Pterostilbene may help protect against Alzheimer’s disease and aging-related cognitive decline, according to an animal-based study published in Neurobiology of Aging in 2012. In tests on mice, the study’s authors determined that pterostilbene may help preserve cognitive function, in part by reducing inflammation.
5. What are the benefits of taking Pterostilbene?
The multiple benefits of pterostilbene in the treatment and prevention of human disease have been attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties leading to improved function of normal cells and inhibition of malignant cells.
Various studies have demonstrated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory , and anticarcinogenic properties of pterostilbene, which has led to the improved function of healthy cells and the inhibition of malignant cells.
1) Pterostilbene benefits in cardiovascular health
Pterostilbene has been implicated in cardiovascular health. with one study showing that it has a protective effect against atherosclerosis and another showing that it improves aspects of autophagy and helps to counteract the pro-atherosclerosis effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein on vascular endothelial cells . It has also demonstrated potential utility in treating ischemia-reperfusion injury.
2) Pterostilbene benefits in Alzheimer’s disease
Studies have also shown the potential of pterostilbene in relation to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. A study on mice with accelerated aging showed that pterostilbene, even in low doses, has a significant effect on improving cognitive ability.
3) Pterostilbene may improve cognition
Another study suggests that pterostilbene is involved in neural plasticity and its associated cognitive and motor functions and that rats given pterostilbene perform better in cognitive tests.
4) Pterostilbene is a powerful anti-inflammatory
Pterostilbene is a powerful anti-inflammatory and can suppress NF-Kb, a protein complex that regulates the transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival. A recent study showed that pterostilbene can potentially treat severe acute pancreatitis by reducing serum levels of inflammatory TNF-a, IL-1b, and NF-kB and that it reduces the generation of reactive oxygen species.
Pterostilbene also has some data that suggests it might be useful for treating arthritis, and given its anti-inflammatory properties, this is hardly a surprise. While research is limited to date regarding arthritis, a rat study did suggest some potential for treating this condition.
5) Pterostilbene may help weigth loss
A recent study performed on patients with hypercholesterolemia, not taking anti-cholesterol medications, found that when supplemented with Pterostilbene, these test subjects showed a significant amount of weight loss. This points towards the potential weight loss benefit of the chemical compound.
Another study performed on animal models supplemented with Pterostilbene powder showed a significant increase in the Akkermansia muciniphila population in the gut of the animal models. The importance of this species is that it reduces the risk of obesity, and improves the overall health of the gut.
6) Pterostilbene improve heart function
The antioxidant features of Pterostilbene are especially beneficial in the heart, as they reduce the oxidative stress on the organ. Studies on animal models have shown a significant reduction of pulmonary heart failure, which is caused by stress on the heart by the dysfunction of the lungs.
7) Pterostilbene protect features to vision
Currently, there are several studies focusing on the ability of this polyphenol in minimizing the incidence of blindness in diabetic patients. The need for this study was raised as a result of another study that proved that Pterostilbene reduces inflammation in the cornea. This finding has led to researchers pushing for the use of Pterostilbene powder for the treatment of dry eye.
6. What are the benefits of Pterostilbene for skin?
Pterostilbene cream which contain Pterostilbene powder was highly effective in reducing markers of aging and induces even skin tone. The product was effective in reducing wrinkles and fine lines, improved skin hydration elasticity and showed no adverse effects
7. Is Pterostilbene good for the brain?
Yes, Pterostilbene is good for the brain. Pterostilbene can improve brain functioning and can protect the brain. Pterostilbene can reduce protein accumulation, which is one of the drivers of aging. Pterostilbene activates AMPK, an important enzyme that can protect cells against aging.
8. Is Pterostilbene good for weight loss
Pterostilbene has produced positive results for weight loss in at least one study, but larger and more robust studies are required to confirm its effectiveness.
In a study of middle-aged people with high cholesterol, those who were not taking cholesterol medication lost a small, but significant, amount of weight while supplementing with pterostilbene. This result was somewhat surprising, as this study was not designed to measure pterostilbene as a weight loss aid. This result has not yet been investigated in a separate study.
Cell and animal studies also suggest that pterostilbene may help improve insulin sensitivity. Pterostilbene blocks the conversion of sugars into fats and prevents fat cells from multiplying.
Pterostilbene may also change the composition of the gut flora, the colonies of microbes that live in the intestine and help digest food.
Rats fed pterostilbene had healthier gut flora, including a significant increase in Akkermansia muciniphila, a species of bacteria that appears to prevent obesity, diabetes, and low-grade inflammation. A. muciniphila has recently become a focus of probiotic research; future studies will clarify whether and how pterostilbene supports its growth.
9. Pterostilbene benefits for hair growth
A healthy, nutritious diet is key to a healthy head of hair. Filling up with foods that are rich in protein and vitamins will help improve the look of your skin and improve your health overall, and of course, keep an eye out for resveratrol or Pterostilbene. If it’s hair loss you’re currently concentrating on, you might want to introduce supplements into your routine. Supplement which combine of minerals and vitamins that nourish the scalp and help support healthy-looking hair.
Here are some more things you can do to nurture you and your hair:
A good scalp massage can help release tension around the crown of the head, and not only does it feel good, research indicates that if you do it regularly, you might also experience thicker hair. Great, if you’re struggling with alopecia, scalp massaging focuses on the hair follicle, which is found just below the skin’s surface. When these follicles are stimulated, the blood vessels are dilated and hair growth (potentially) happens.
Massage your scalp a couple of times a week in the shower to help boost the look of your hair and help you relax. Or use it to work in your favorite hair serum or foam to help spread the product and aid with absorption and blood flow.
The world can be a difficult place, and unfortunately, if you find yourself under an enormous amount of stress, you could also see more hair loss than usual. (As if things aren’t tricky enough!) Stressors come in all shapes and sizes — perhaps you’re dealing with difficult work conditions, or maybe you’re living with financial complications. Whatever it is, if you don’t find time to unwind properly, you could experience physical side effects.
Telogen effluvium is the type of hair loss most associated with stress. You could also experience Alopecia areata (hair loss in specific areas), Trichotillomania (hair-pulling) and Androgenic alopecia (thinning hair). Ensure you’re eating well and work on your sleep hygiene to encourage a flow state and deep rest.
10. Pterostilbene dosage
Supplementation of pterostilbene for the purpose of aiding glucose and lipid metabolism tends to be around 20- 40mg/kg oral ingestion in rats, which is an estimated human dosage range of:
215-430mg for a 150lb person
290-580mg for a 200lb person
365-730mg for a 250lb person
Possible anxiolytic properties of pterostilbene are seen at 1-2mg/kg in mice, which is an estimated human dose of:
5.5-11mg for a 150lb person
7.3-14.5mg for a 200lb person
9-18mg for a 250lb person
Which is notable as 5-10mg/kg in these mice (slightly over double the dose) has failed to have the same anxiolytic effects, suggesting a bell-curve that may favor lower dosages such as is found in food consumption rather than higher dosages from supplementation.
Limited human studies have used either 50mg twice a day or 125mg twice a day, and the addition of Grape seed extract (100mg at both dosing times) with the low dose may mitigate some adverse effects on cholesterol seen with pterostilbene in isolation.
11. Pterostilbene side effects
Compared to medications that are prescribed to treat symptoms like high cholesterol and other common health problems, pterostilbene is much less likely to cause side effects (such as muscle pain and nausea). It is generally safe to consume from both foods and supplements, but in high doses it may interfere with the effects of certain medications.
If you take medications to help control your cholesterol, blood pressure and/or blood glucose levels, it’s best to speak with your doctor first before beginning any new supplements. Your doctor can help to monitor your reaction if you choose to start taking pterostilbene in order to make sure your dosage doesn’t need to be adjusted.
Even when taken in high doses, pterostilbene has been found to be generally non-toxic. However, high doses do not seem to offer additional benefits, which is why you should follow dosage recommendations, and according to the research published in the Journal of Toxicology, “the potential for toxicity cannot be excluded at higher doses.” Stop taking pterostilbene supplements if you experience nausea, aches, hives or any unusual symptoms. If you have allergies to pterostilbene foods like berries, peanuts or grapes, you should avoid eating these foods even if they are otherwise considered “healthy.”
12. Pterostilbene for anxiety
Pterostilbene is an extract from blueberries, so it acts as a strong anti-oxidant. It controls or helps to balance nerve signals and chemistry in the hippocampus, which in turn controls memories. Pterostilbene helps reallocate thoughts and memories as “not-stressful,” making you feel more relaxed. You can take these Pterostilbene supplements every day.
13. Pterostilbene for fertility
A woman’s eggs are made while she herself is in utero. As those eggs get older, their DNA becomes fragile and more prone to chromosomal damage. This chromosomal damage is the leading cause of pregnancy loss across all age groups, and the risk of miscarriage increases as one gets older. Age is the number one factor affecting a woman’s fertility.
Pterostilbene is a potent antioxidant that have been seen help with egg quality. It’s very easy to take and never had a patient report any side effects.
Resveratrol is an antiaging, antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and insulin‐sensitizing natural polyphenolic compound. Growing evidence indicates that resveratrol has potential therapeutic effects in infertile women with diminished ovarian function, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or endometriosis.
Beside use Pterostilbene or Resveratrol supplements, a good lifestyle is good for fertility also. For example:
The more we learn about sleep, the more we discover that eight or more hours each night is needed for optimal health. This is especially true for our eggs. Our bodies are designed to wake up with the sun and go to sleep when it gets dark. Getting enough sleep is key for hormonal balance, which in turn supports healthy egg development. Sleep also plays a critical role in maintaining optimal weight, promoting good energy levels, and reducing stress.
Some exercise is good, but too much can work against you when you want to be pregnant. The body has two gears:
Strenuous exercise puts the body into the fight-or-flight mode. This impacts your hormones, suppresses egg development, and makes it harder to get pregnant. Mild to moderate exercise, think walking or gentle yoga, keep your blood circulating while maintaining your body in the feed-and-breed mode.
14. Pterostilbene for dogs
Compare to the information about Pterostilbene for dogs, more information isabout Resveratrol for dogs. A study conducted in 2015 found that resveratrol both boosts and suppresses the immune system. Resveratrol prompts the white blood cells to release more pro-inflammatory cytokines than usual. White blood cells use these cytokines to communicate with each other when fighting infection. The more cytokines there are, the stronger the immune system.
However, resveratrol simultaneously suppresses the immune system by decreasing the function of neutrophils. These white blood cells fight and kill bacteria during an infection. These conflicting findings make it even more difficult to determine whether resveratrol truly benefits the immune system.
The compound may also prevent cancer, particularly colon and breast cancers, by preventing and slowing the growth of cancer cells. Resveratrol also has antihypertensive properties, and may prevent high blood pressure and cholesterol. It is also thought to promote neurological health, although this has not been confirmed. Some studies suggest it may increase an animal’s lifespan.
While these findings seem promising, veterinarians are still investigating the full effects of resveratrol on the canine immune system. It is unclear whether prolonged administration of resveratrol supplements poses any harm to dogs and other animals. More research is needed to determine the side effects of the compound, not just in dogs but in all animals.
Additionally, nearly all the studies that suggest resveratrol is mostly beneficial were conducted on cultured cells, fruit flies, fish, and mice. Though studies show that resveratrol increases these animals’ lifespans, resveratrol will most likely affect dogs differently. There are few studies on the effects of resveratrol in dogs.
Many studies remain optimistic about the health benefits of resveratrol for both canines and humans. However, it may not be the miracle supplement some sources claim it is.
Most healthy dogs will not require resveratrol supplementation, especially since resveratrol should be administered in very small amounts. If you want to add a little extra resveratrol to your dog’s diet, consider feeding them blueberries or peanuts. Both foods contain naturally-occurring resveratrol, in addition to vitamins, minerals, and heart-healthy antioxidants.
Never administer any supplements to your dog unless explicitly instructed to do so by a veterinarian. If you believe your dog may benefit from a resveratrol supplement, ask your veterinarian about the benefits and complications before purchasing any supplements or changing your dog’s diet. Only administer supplements in doses recommended by your veterinarian.
15. What foods contain Pterostilbene?
Pterostilbene is found in blueberries, with the estimated content per blueberry varying between 99 ng to 520 ng, depending on the type of blueberry. To put this into perspective, an average blueberry punnet weighs around 340 grams.
If you ate the entire punnet, the total amount of pterostilbene you would get is only 0.03 to 0.18 mg, and based on the dose used in limited human studies of 100mg a day, that would be a huge amount of blueberries a day!
However, if you are looking to naturally obtain the kind of levels of pterostilbene that dietary supplements offer, then you would really, really, need to like blueberries, not to mention the high cost of buying that much fruit. In realistic terms, this is impractical. Supplement dosages range from 50 mg to 1,000 mg per capsule.
Pterostilbene is also found in almonds, grape leaves and vines, cranberries and related Vaccinium berries, such as lingonberries, bilberries, and huckleberries.
16. What is Pterostilbene derived from?
Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a stilbene compound that is structurally similar to other popular stilbenes such as resveratrol or piceatannol; it is named after its first discovered source (the pterocarpus genus) but is also a component of blueberries and grape products. It is a phytoalexin (compound produced by plants as a defense against parasites and insects) similar to resveratrol albeit more potent
Pterostilbene sources include:
|Pterocarpus marsupium (Indian Kino Tree) and pterocarpus santalinus (Sandalwood)|
|Blueberries (92-550ng/g dry weight)|
|Grape (Vitis vinifera) leaves and berries|
|The Dracaena genus|
|Rheum rhaponticum (root)|
|Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea)|
17. Pterostilbene natural sources
Pterostilbene is found in almonds, various Vaccinium berries (including blueberries), grape leaves and vines, and Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood.
18. Is Pterostilbene a phytoestrogen
The stilbenes family of phytoestrogens includes reseveratrol and pterostilbene which are commonly found in red wine and peanuts.
19. Is Pterostilbene fat soluble
Yes, this is one of the difference between Pterostilbene and Resveratrol also.Without the methoxy groups Resveratrol is not as lipophilic (oil-soluble) as pterostilbene, so it’s cellular uptake is much less than pterostilbene – pterostilbene can be taken through the cell’s lipid bi-layer rather easily.
20. Is Pterostilbene water soluble?
Pterostilbene is practically insoluble (in water) and a very weakly acidic compound (based on its pKa). Pterostilbene can be found in common grape and grape wine, which makes pterostilbene a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products.
21. Does Pterostilbene increase LDL?
Yes,Pterostilbene increases LDL when used in monotherapy. Pterostilbene reduces blood pressure in adults at 250 mg/day doses. There appears to be potential for weight reduction in certain subgroups with pterostilbene.
22. Does Pterostilbene lowder blood pressure?
A form of pterostilbene, a compound found naturally in blueberries, reduces blood pressure in adults, according to results of a clinical trial presented Sept. 20 at the American Heart Association’s 2012 Scientific Sessions on High Blood Pressure Research in Washington, D.C.
The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted by University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy and School of Medicine researchers to determine whether pterostilbene (tero-STILL-bean), improves cardiovascular health.
Investigators evaluated the ingredient in 80 patients with high cholesterol (total cholesterol of 200 or greater and/or LDL cholesterol of 100 or greater). Twice daily for six to eight weeks, participants received either high (125 mg) doses of pterostilbene, low (50 mg) doses of pterostilbene, pterostilbene (50 mg) with grape extract (100 mg), or a placebo, said Daniel M. Riche, the study’s principal investigator. Investigators assessed patients’ blood pressure, body weight and blood lipids at the beginning and end of their participation in the study.
“We found reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients who received the high dose of pterostilbene and reduced systolic blood pressure in patients who received the low dose of pterostilbene with grape extract,” said Riche, an assistant professor of pharmacy practice and medicine at the UM Medical Center in Jackson.
Participants in the high-dose pterostilbene group (250 mg per day) achieved significant reductions in blood pressure compared to placebo: 7.8 mmHg in systolic BP (p less than 0.01) and 7.3 mmHg in diastolic BP (p less than 0.001).
23. Is Pterostilbene dangerous
Pterostilbene is considered safe and has no significant side effects up to a dose of 250 mg per day. Some people may have increased LDL cholesterol when taking pterostilbene; grape seed extract negates this effect and may pair well with a pterostilbene supplement .
There are currently no studies on the safety of pterostilbene for children or for pregnant or breastfeeding women. Because this compound is commonly found in food and considered to be healthy, small doses of pterostilbene should be safe for anyone; however, caution is advised at higher doses.
Talk to your doctor before giving pterostilbene to children or taking it yourself if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
24. How much Pterostilbene should I take?
Pterostilbene is generally safe for use in humans at doses up to 250 mg per day. Pterostilbene is well-tolerated at a twice daily dosing frequency
25. Pterostilbene with or without food?
According to the study which is the first well-designed comparison of pterostilbene in a dose-ranging controlled human trial. There appears to be no direct effect of pterostilbene on measures of hepatic or renal function.
There is unlikely an association of pterostilbene with gastrointestinal ADR (with or without food) or itching as both reported ADRs occurred to a low extent in only the placebo and high dose groups.
26. Should you take Pterostilbene?
A human trial has shown that pterostilbene is safe up to a dose of 250 mg per day. Throw into the mix the fact that it’s commonly found in food, and it gets clear that pterostilbene is generally safe to use. Keep in mind, though, that this drug raises ‘bad’ cholesterol level in users.
27. What is the best time of day to take Pterostilbene?
People may ask ” When can I best take resveratrol, pterostilbene, curcumin and quercetin for optimal effect? ”
It is preferably consumed in the morning, or evening, but not during the day. Consume with water, with a small meal (breakfast).
28. What supplements contain Pterostilbene?
As people pay more and more attention to health, people’s demand for supplements is also increasing day by day. Pterostilbene supplements are one of them, which is deeply loved by people.
The main ingredient of Pterostilbene supplement of course is Pterostilbene powder, it can used to make different kinds, include capsule,pills,drink…
Pterostilbene as a methylated stilbene molecule, it has a similar structure to the antioxidant resveratrol. Pterostilbene and resveratrol share many of the same benefits, including fighting oxidative stress, but pterostilbene has been shown to have superior bioavailability. In other words, pterostilbene is believed to be absorbed and utilized by the body more easily than similar phytonutrients, which is one reason why it’s recently caught the attention of health researchers.
29. Is Pterostilbene better than Resveratrol?
1). What is Resveratrol
Resveratrol is part of a group of compounds called polyphenols. They’re thought to act like antioxidants, protecting the body against damage that can put you at higher risk for things like cancer and heart disease. Resveratrol supports cardiovascular health, antioxidant defenses, glucose metabolism, healthy inflammatory balance, and more. Pterostilbene is now championed as a more potent form with superior bioavailability.
Resveratrol powder (501-36-0) base information
|Synonyms||5-[(1E)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzenediol; trans-Resveratrol; (E)-5-(p-Hydroxystyryl)resorcinol; (E)-Resveratrol; trans-3,4′,5-Trihydroxystilbene;|
|Molecular Weight||228.24 g/mol|
|Half Life||at studies, suggest a half life up to 1.6 hours|
|Storage Condition||protect from light, 2-8°C|
|Application||Minor constituent of wine, correlated with serum lipid reduction and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Resveratrol is a specific inhibitor of COX-1, and it also inhibits the hydroperoxidase activity of COX-1. It has been shown to inhibit events associated with tumor initiation, promotion and progression.|
2). Pterostilbene vs Resveratrol
-A Comparison of Bioavailability and Health Benefits
Nearly two decades ago, it was discovered that resveratrol slowed the process of cellular aging in yeast. In 2003, Harvard Medical School Professor David Sinclair, PhD, found that resveratrol activated a longevity gene called SIRT1 and the resultant class of sirtuin proteins.
Then, the same mechanism was studied and found to be true in mice. Investigations into resveratrol then turned toward its effects on human health. Resveratrol was found to support cardiovascular health, antioxidant defenses, glucose metabolism, healthy inflammatory balance, and more. As results of these studies were reported, people became more interested in drinking resveratrol-rich red wine and taking resveratrol supplements.
However, some of the biggest hurdles for reaping the benefits of resveratrol in humans appear to be its limited bioavailability and rapid elimination from the body. But those hurdles might be overcome by a compound that has more recently gained some notice.
About 10 years after the discovery that resveratrol activated a longevity gene, researchers began to take interest in its molecular cousin, pterostilbene. Although it is present in a higher concentration in blueberries than in red wine, pterostilbene is nearly identical in chemical structure to resveratrol.
The first human-safety study of pterostilbene was published in 2013, and investigations have intensified since then. Pterostilbene is now championed as a more potent form of resveratrol. It’s said to offer all of the previously known benefits of resveratrol but with superior bioavailability. Are these claims true? Read on for a detailed comparison of these two cousin compounds.
Resveratrol and pterostilbene are both naturally occurring plant compounds. Resveratrol is concentrated in grape skins and red wine, but it has also been isolated from the roots of Japanese knotweed. Pterostilbene is concentrated primarily in blueberries, but it has also been found in small amounts in peanuts, grapes and cocoa.
Resveratrol and pterostilbene fall into a class of compounds called stilbenes. These phenolic compounds consist of two aromatic rings with hydroxyl groups (-OH). Resveratrol and pterostilbene are very similar in structure, but with one minute—yet critical—difference. Resveratrol has three hydroxyl groups, whereas pterostilbene has only one. The other two hydroxyl groups are replaced by methoxy groups (O-CH3) in pterostilbene.
The difference in the number of hydroxyl groups is crucial because it influences how quickly the compound is metabolized and eliminated from the body. The three hydroxyl groups in resveratrol hasten the molecule’s removal, which makes it challenging to reach and maintain appreciable levels of resveratrol in the bloodstream.
With only one hydroxyl group per molecule, pterostilbene is able to persist in circulation for a longer time. The slight difference in structure also makes pterostilbene more lipophilic. Pterostilbene can more readily pass through cell membranes—making it more available to support cellular pathways.
Both resveratrol and pterostilbene are naturally occurring in two forms: cis and trans. The trans forms are more stable and more abundant in nature. Studies suggest that for both resveratrol and pterostilbene, the trans forms are superior to the cis forms in terms of biological activity.
-Bioavailability and Half-life
The good news about resveratrol and pterostilbene is that they’re both readily absorbed after oral intake, and are even capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. The bad news is that they’re rapidly metabolized. Their time in circulation is fleeting.
The absorption rate of resveratrol from the intestinal lumen is about 75 percent, but its rapid metabolism in the liver results in oral bioavailability of only about 1 percent. That’s because the liver produces resveratrol conjugates—primarily glucuronides and sulfates. In a human bioavailability study, 15 healthy volunteers each took a 500 mg capsule of trans-resveratrol. Blood samples taken after dosing showed that free resveratrol only represented 0.28 percent of total resveratrol in circulation, with the rest consisting of conjugated glucuronides or sulfates.
The study also showed that resveratrol was short-lived— its concentration peaked at only about one hour after intake. That result was similar to an earlier study, which found that the half-life of trans-resveratrol was one to three hours following a single dose.
When a compound has such low bioavailability and such a short half-life, it’s difficult to maintain a concentration in circulation. One study found that even when people took 150 mg of trans-resveratrol six times per day, they still had low plasma concentrations.
One of the most commonly cited comparisons of resveratrol and pterostilbene is that the oral bioavailability of resveratrol is only 20 percent, while pterostilbene reaches 80 percent. But it’s important to note that these percentages refer to the combined total of resveratrol plus resveratrol sulfate, and pterostilbene plus pterostilbene sulfate. It’s even more important to note that these percentages came from a study that was conducted in rats rather than humans.
The other oft-cited comparison is that the half-life of pterostilbene is seven times longer than that of resveratrol. This statistic comes from two studies: One reported that resveratrol had a half-life of 14 minutes,and the other reported that pterostilbene had a half-life of 105 minutes. Again, these were preclinical studies that were conducted not in humans but in rabbits, rats, and mice.
Several unanswered questions remain. We don’t know whether the conjugated metabolites of resveratrol and pterostilbene have biological activity at the tissue level (there is some evidence of activity, albeit less than free resveratrol). Also, it’s unknown whether the bioavailability data on pterostilbene from animal studies can be translated to humans.
Many researchers and clinicians are taking the limited data we have so far about the bioavailability of pterostilbene and running with it. Based on the studies mentioned above, pterostilbene has gained a reputation for being a more potent and bioavailable form of resveratrol.
–Comparison of Health Benefits
Resveratrol has been extensively researched. Experimental studies show that resveratrol modulates numerous molecular mechanisms at the cellular level. It interacts, for example, with cellular pathways related to healthy inflammatory balance, apoptosis, and autophagy. It also interacts with pathways associated with aging and longevity, such as telomeres and cell senescence.
Despite its low bioavailability, there is abundant evidence for resveratrol’s ability to promote health in humans. Randomized, controlled trials have shown that resveratrol supplementation supports healthy weight management, blood-sugar metabolism, cardiovascular function, mood, healthy inflammatory balance and oxidative stress. Resveratrol’s health benefits have also been shown in many other studies, and even meta-analyses.
When it comes to pterostilbene, the evidence is much sparser. Aside from a safety study published in 2013, there have been very few trials conducted in humans. There was one study, conducted at the University of Mississippi in 80 adults, which found that pterostilbene supported healthy blood pressure and lipid metabolism.
The vast majority of research on pterostilbene is in the experimental and preclinical phase. Researchers have found that pterostilbene supports many of the same cellular pathways as resveratrol—including supporting antioxidant defenses and modulating pathways involved in healthy inflammatory balance, apoptosis, and autophagy. Most experts agree that the molecular mechanisms of pterostilbene should be considered equivalent to those of resveratrol.
30. Who should not take resveratrol
Patients who have blood disorders, which can cause bleeding, should be monitored by a physician while taking this product. People undergoing surgery should stop taking resveratrol two weeks before the surgery and not take it for two weeks after the surgery to reduce the risk of bleeding.
Do not take resveratrol supplements or excessive amounts of natural foods containing resveratrol while pregnant or breast-feeding. There is a lack of research in this area to prove safety. Resveratrol should be avoided in children.
Resveratrol has mild estrogenic activity and until more is known, women with cancers and other conditions that are estrogen sensitive should seek medical advice before taking resveratrol.
Resveratrol reduces the activity of enzymes involved with drug metabolism but whether it has a significant effect in humans has not been studied.
31. How much resveratrol is safe?
Resveratrol supplements are possibly safe when taken by mouth in doses up to 1500 mg daily for up to 3 months. Higher doses of up to 2000-3000 mg daily have been used safely for 2-6 months. But these higher doses are more likely to cause stomach upset.
32. Pterostilbene with caffeine
Caffeine is a methylxanthine found in coffee beans, cocoa beans and in tea. Research shows that caffeine is a brain stimulant that increases alertness, wakefulness, attention, working memory, and motor activity.
There is product which is a patented compound binding caffeine with the potent antioxidant pterostilbene. Binding caffeine with pterostilbene significantly slows the absorption rate of caffeine lengthening its half life and delivering up to 30% more total effect while reducing typical caffeine crash symptoms.
33. Pterostilbene with quercetin
1) What is quercetin and its benefits
Quercetin is a plant pigment (flavonoid). It’s found in many plants and foods, such as red wine, onions, green tea, apples, and berries.
Quercetin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that might help reduce swelling, kill cancer cells, control blood sugar, and help prevent heart disease.
Quercetin is most commonly used for conditions of the heart and blood vessels and to prevent cancer. It is also used for arthritis, bladder infections, and diabetes, but there is no strong scientific evidence to support most of these uses. There is also no good evidence to support using quercetin for COVID-19.
2) Pterostilbene vs Quercetin
There is a special class of antioxidant compounds call flavonoids or polyphenols, so eating a diet rich in fruits and especially vegetables can go a long way toward keeping you healthy.
Quercetin and pterostilbene are two such flavonoids. However, because these antioxidants are found in very small amounts in only a handful of foods and your body’s ability to absorb them in their natural state is poor or inadequate, your potential for benefits is limited.
With Quercetin and Pterostilbene advanced formula, use professional teachnology to increase these compunds’ bioavailability by as much as 20 times. With special formula, you may get:
1) Supports your natural defense against seasonal threats.
2) Supports lung and bronchial tract health.
3) Supports the production of new mitochondria in your brain and muscle.
4) Supports a healthy, normal immune response.
5) Helps protect cells and tissues against free radical damage.
6) Supports an already normal inflammatory response.
7) Boosts mental performance following extreme physical stress.
8) Supports healthy cellular aging.
9) Helps protect against lipid peroxidation in your cells and tissues.
10) Supports metabolic health.
34. Pterostilbene vs berberine
Berberine is a bioactive compound that can be extracted from several different plants, including a group of shrubs called Berberis. HCL is the hydrochloride form of Berberine, CAS number is 633-65-8.
Technically, it belongs to a class of compounds called alkaloids. It has a yellow color, and has often been used as a dye.
Berberine has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, where it was used to treat various ailments.
Now, modern science has confirmed that it has impressive benefits for several different health problems.
Pterostilbene is a substance found in very small quantities in blueberries. In larger quantities, it can improve insulin sensitivity (R,R,R), and could improve type 2 diabetes (R,R).
Just like metformin, pterostilbene can also activate AMPK (R). In fact, pterostilbene activated AMPK already at levels of 50 micromolar, while metformin achieved the effect at a higher dose of 2 millimolar (R).
35. Pterostilbene and NMN
1) What is NMN
NMN stands for nicotinamide mononucleotide, a molecule naturally occurring in all life forms. At the molecular level, it is a ribo-nucleotide, which is a basic structural unit of the nucleic acid RNA. Structurally, the molecule is composed of a nicotinamide group, a ribose and a phosphate group. NMN is the direct precursor of the essential molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and is considered a key component to increase NAD+ levels in cells.
NMN powder (1094-61-7) base information
|Chemical name||beta-Nicotinamide mononucleotide|
|Molecular Weight||334.221 g/mol|
|Storage Condition||Hygroscopic, -20˚C Freezer, Under Inert Atmosphere|
|Application||Nicotinamide mononucleotide (“NMN”, “NAMN”, and “β-NMN”) is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide.|
2) Pterostilbene with NMN
Combining pterostilbene and NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide) may be a powerful duo for slowing down the aging process. NMN is a precursor to NAD+, a crucial coenzyme needed by every cell in the body. A decrease in NAD+ levels leads to an increase in the progression of aging and disease.
Both pterostilbene and NMN are activators of sirtuins, a family of proteins that regulate cellular and mitochondrial health and control the aging process. Increased sirtuin activity, especially SIRT1, has been linked to increased lifespan in yeast and animals. Due to its superior bioavailability, pterostilbene may be a stronger sirtuin activator than resveratrol.
Combining pterostilbene and NMN may increase NMN’s effectiveness because sirtuin activators and NAD+ boosters work together. As pterostilbene increases sirtuin activity, adding NMN allows for the precursor molecule to do its primary job of boosting NAD+ levels.
Essentially, NMN and pterostilbene work synergistically to improve mitochondrial health and slow down the aging process, as NMN boosts NAD+ levels and both compounds activate sirtuins.
36. Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide riboside
1) What is Nicotinamide riboside(NR)
Nicotinamide riboside is a member of the vitamin B3 family, which also includes niacin and niacinamide. It’s found in fruits, vegetables, meat, and milk.
Nicotinamide riboside is changed in the body to a chemical called NAD+. The body needs NAD+ for many processes to work normally. Low levels can cause health problems. Taking nicotinamide riboside can help raise low NAD+ levels.
People use nicotinamide riboside for anti-aging effects, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, Alzheimer disease, obesity, and many other purposes, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Don’t confuse nicotinamide riboside with niacin, niacinamide, or NADH. These are all related but are not the same.
2) Pterostilbene with Nicotinamide riboside(NR)
Some dietary supplements contain Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside(NR). Nicotinamide riboside is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD+). If you’re taking Pterostilbene with Nicotinamide Riboside ”NR” (Reviews), you might want to reconsider. NR expert Dr. Charles Brenner explained on Twitter earlier.
37. Where to buy Pterostilbene?
Wisepowder as direct manufacturer, provide the best quality Pterostilbene powder from gram-KG-Ton to support different clients’ need.