Pterostilbene powder (537-42-8)
Pterostilbene is a stilbenoid chemically related to resveratrol. It belongs to the group of phytoalexins, agents produced by plants to fight infections.Based on animal studies it is thought to exhibit anti-cancer, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-hypertriglyceridemia properties, as well as the ability to fight off and reverse cognitive decline. It is believed that the compound also has anti-diabetic properties, but so far very little has been studied.
Manufacture: Batch Production
Package: 1KG/bag, 25KG/drum
Pterostilbene powder (537-42-8) video
Pterostilbene powder (537-42-8) Base Information
|Molecular Weight||256.3 g/mol|
|Melting Point||89-92 °C|
|Form||A crystalline solid|
|Appearance||Fine free-flowing crystalline powder|
|Half Life||105 minutes|
|Storage Condition||protect from light, 2-8°C|
|Application||Pre-workout, bodybuilding supplements,cosmetics|
Pterostilbene: A Better Resveratrol
Resveratrol is a compound responsible for the health benefits of wine, making wine drinkers all over the world a healthy reason to consume wine. However, scientists have now found ‘better resveratrol’, namely, pterostilbene.
What is Pterostilbene?
Pterostilbene is a potent and dimethylated derivative of resveratrol, the compound that gives the wine its antioxidant properties. It belongs to the stilbene group of compounds that are naturally found in plants and fruits, especially blueberries. Due to its defensive role as a phytoalexin in plants, it is considered to be a corrosive and dangerous substance that must be regulated and monitored before undergoing wholesale distribution from the manufacturer supplier factory.
However, Food and Drug Association (FDA) approved Pterostilbene use in humans based on the findings of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The results state that humans can take pterostilbene every day as far as the maximum dose being consumed is less than 250mg. Further research is being performed so that Pterostilbene can get the same FDA GRAS approval as its cousin compound, resveratrol, along with the approval for its synthetic production. These studies are also focusing on the potential benefits and uses of the compound.
Resveratrol vs Pterostilbene
Resveratrol and Pterostilbene differ from one another, structurally, based on one key difference which is the numbers of hydroxyl groups attached to the main structure. Pterostilbene has only one hydroxyl group whereas Resveratrol has three attached to the primary backbone. The numbers of hydroxyl groups play an important role in the metabolization of the compound and the more they are, the faster the compound is cleared from the system. This explains the faster bioavailability of resveratrol compared to pterostilbene.
The difference in the bioavailabilities of these two compounds is quite significant and it is this difference that has led to Pterostilbene being termed as the better resveratrol. Pterostilbene has higher bioavailability, almost 80 percent, compared to Resveratrol which only has a bioavailability of 20 percent. More often than not, Resveratrol leaves the body within fifteen minutes of ingestion and after several types of research, Pterostilbene was finally discovered in 1977, as more potent and more bioavailable resveratrol.
Mechanism of Action of Pterostilbene
Pterostilbene has several different mechanisms of action, all of which produce different actions and benefits of the compound. Based on the net result, the mechanisms of action of Pterostilbene are mentioned below:
● Antioxidant Effects
Oxidative stress in the body can result in unstable chemical compounds that partake in several chemical reactions which destroy the normal functioning and stability of the cells. Antioxidant properties of Pterostilbene have combated the oxidative stress by increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase 1, and peroxiredoxin-4 in the cells.
These two enzymes have the ability to bind to unstable chemical compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduce their levels in the cell, significantly. This increase in the levels of enzymes has been detected in the human eye and is believed to be the main mechanism of action of Pterostilbene in producing antioxidant properties.
● Sirtuin Activation
Pterostilbene is known as an anti-aging compound and supplements containing pterostilbene powder are sold as elixirs from the youth fountain. This benefit is believed to be the result of the activation of the SIRT1 signaling pathway. This pathway is responsible for increased expression of p53, an important checkpoint in the cell cycle to ensure that DNA is not damaged. It is also this checkpoint that helps reduce the development of cancer from cells with damaged DNA.
Activation of the SIRT1 signaling pathway is believed to reduce the risk of mutation and prevent DNA damage, hence, leading to the popular anti-aging benefits of the compound.
● Anti-Inflammation Effects
Oxidative stress not only results in the production of reactive oxygen species but also causes inflammation in the body. Two key regulators of inflammation in the body are Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and Interleukin-1b (IL-1b), which are blocked by Pterostilbene to produce the anti-inflammatory effects. Blocking these regulators also reduces the levels of ROS in the cells.
The endoplasmic reticulum or ER in the cell has to respond to the inflammatory signals to cause inflammation but Pterostilbene is known to protect the ER in the cells lining the blood vessels in the body from stress which allows them to ignore the inflammatory signals, resulting in decreased inflammation in the body.
● Anti-Cancer Effects
Pterostilbene has different anti-cancer effects for different cancer types. In throat cancer, Pterostilbene causes an increased response to inflammatory signals by the ER, contrary to its effect on the ER of cells in the blood vessels. This allows the chemical compound to damage the cancer cells while protecting the normal cells in the neck.
Pterostilbene is also known to increase the production of pro-apoptotic factors, namely, Bcl-2 and Bax in the glioma cancer cells, which increases cell death of cancer cells, hence, reducing cancer sizes. This effect of pterostilbene is only seen with brain cancers, and not other kinds, yet.
For lung cancer, Pterostilbene inhibits the production of several cancer-promoting factors and reduces inflammation produced by cancerous cells, which makes the survival of cancers difficult in the body.
Apart from directly damaging cancer cells, Pterostilbene is also able to inhibit the Notch-1 signaling pathway, which is the main pathway used by cancerous cells to protect themselves from the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. This makes treatment of cancer easier with cancers responding to the conventional methods of treatment.
Pterostilbene’s neuroprotective effects are through its effects in three different regions of the brain, with three different mechanisms of action. Almost all of the effects of Pterostilbene are through its action in the hippocampal region of the brain.
Pterostilbene powder is believed to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus, which helps create a nutritious surrounding for the growth and development of neurons. Moreover, it increases the levels of the protein, Nrf-2 in the hippocampus, which in turn, increases the antioxidant proteins in the brain, allowing Pterostilbene to have antioxidant properties in the brain as well.
Furthermore, it has an effect on the MAO enzymes which break down neurotransmitters in the brain. Pterostilbene powder is known for inhibiting the MAO-B enzyme which exclusively breaks down dopamine in the brain. Inhibition of MAO-B hence increases dopamine levels as a result of the actions of this polyphenol.
It also protects the brain from Alzheimer’s disease by preventing the deposition of amyloids which are the key factors for the development of this neurodegenerative disorder. However, the exact mechanism of action for this is not yet known.
Foods Rich in Pterostilbene
Pterostilbene is a naturally found polyphenol with potent primary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Its natural sources include:
- Red Grapes
- Grape Leaves
- Indian Koni Tree Bark
- Red Sandalwood
Dosages for Pterostilbene
Depending on which benefit of pterostilbene is required, the dosage changes for humans. If looking for the lipid metabolism benefit of pterostilbene, the dosage, based on weight, is:
- 215-430mg for a 150lb person
- 290-580mg for a 200lb person
- 365-730mg for a 250lb person
If the anxiolytic benefits of Pterostilbene are required, then the dosage changes to:
- 5-11mg for a 150lb person
- 3-14.5mg for a 200lb person
- 9-18mg for a 250lb person
These are estimated doses based on the doses that were seen to be beneficial in producing results when the compound was studied on animal models. Supplements containing pterostilbene may contain different dosages and percentages of pterostilbene powder, that should be thoroughly assessed before taking any of these products.
Benefits of Pterostilbene
There are many benefits of Pterostilbene which have been thoroughly studied and researched, at least on animal models. The FDA and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)’s approval backs the safety of Pterostilbene powder and is a result of these clinical studies and research studies.
● May support weight loss
A recent study performed on patients with hypercholesterolemia, not taking anti-cholesterol medications, found that when supplemented with Pterostilbene, these test subjects showed a significant amount of weight loss. This points towards the potential weight loss benefit of the chemical compound.
Another study performed on animal models supplemented with Pterostilbene powder showed a significant increase in the Akkermansia muciniphila population in the gut of the animal models. The importance of this species is that it reduces the risk of obesity, and improves the overall health of the gut.
● May improve cognition
As mentioned above, Pterostilbene has several neuroprotective effects along with anti-cancer effects for different types of brain cancers. Apart from the benefits mentioned above, Pterostilbene powder is also known for its anxiolytic effects. A study performed on animal models supplemented with Pterostilbene showed a significant reduction in the anxiety levels of the rats, along with increased dopamine levels, which further helped improved the cognition of the subjects. Moreover, Pterostilbene’s effects in the hippocampus are also associated with improved memory forming and memory retention skills.
● Beneficial for liver health
As Pterostilbene reduces the inflammation and oxidative stress in the body, this effect can result in the prevention of liver damage by stress and inflammation if supplemented with the compound. This statement was proved as a result of the study performed on animal subjects exposed to Acetaminophen. This medication, when given to rats, can result in extensive liver damage and scarring but rats exposed to this and supplemented with Pterostilbene were found to have no significant liver inflammation or damage.
● Improved Heart Function
The antioxidant features of Pterostilbene are especially beneficial in the heart, as they reduce the oxidative stress on the organ. Studies on animal models have shown a significant reduction of pulmonary heart failure, which is caused by stress on the heart by the dysfunction of the lungs.
● Protective features to Vision
Currently, there are several studies focusing on the ability of this polyphenol in minimizing the incidence of blindness in diabetic patients. The need for this study was raised as a result of another study that proved that Pterostilbene reduces inflammation in the cornea. This finding has led to researchers pushing for the use of Pterostilbene powder for the treatment of dry eye.
Limitation of Research into Pterostilbene
Most of the research performed on Pterostilbene and its potential benefits is performed on small sample sizes, with several other limitations to the studies. This chemical compound needs to undergo further researches, with bigger sample sizes and stricter guidelines. The guidelines are especially of concern as some of the studies that claim to see the anti-cancer effects of the compounds, amongst many other benefits of the compound, are performed with more than Pterostilbene. The results produced could be a synergistic effect or a sole effect of the other compound in the study. This is why further research needs to be performed.
Side Effects of Pterostilbene
Pterostilbene is a relatively safe compound when taken in the recommended doses and not combined with medications that could interact and produce harmful side effects. Moreover, the polyphenol belonging to the stilbenoid compounds has not had any toxicities or side effects reported, as it is a well-regulated compound.
Why buy Pterostilbene Powder from our Manufacturer Supplier Factory?
Pterostilbene Powder has to be manufactured and stored in special conditions to remove its defensive nature and make it less of a corrosive compound. Buying from our manufacturer supplier factory guarantees the safety and potency of the product. Not just that, it is easy to buy wholesale to use the powder for the manufacturing of different supplements and products.
All products are manufactured using the highest safety guidelines and with utmost precision. Moreover, after the manufacturing process is over, products are tested for safety, efficacy, and potency followed by transport or storage in optimal settings. Any product that fails the safety checks, along with the batch it belongs to is not allowed to go forward and is sent back for review. This guarantees that the best products are being put on the market.
- Yu, L., Zhong, Z., Sun, H., Yan, L., He, B., Li, S., Ma, S., Yang, L., & Huang, Y. (2016). Effect of pterostilbene on glioma cells and related mechanisms. American journal of translational research, 8(12), 5211–5218.
- Yang, Y., Yan, X., Duan, W., Yan, J., Yi, W., Liang, Z., Wang, N., Li, Y., Chen, W., Yu, S., Jin, Z., & Yi, D. (2013). Pterostilbene exerts antitumor activity via the Notch1 signaling pathway in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. PloS one, 8(5), e62652. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062652
- Shen, P., Hu, Q., Dong, M., Bai, S., Liang, Z., Chen, Z., Li, P., Hu, Z., Zhong, X., Zhu, D., Wang, H., & Xie, P. (2017). Venlafaxine exerts antidepressant effects possibly by activating MAPK-ERK1/2 and P13K-AKT pathways in the hippocampus. Behavioral brain research, 335, 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.08.011
- Yang, L., Ran, Y., Quan, Z., Wang, R., Yang, Q., Jia, Q., Zhang, H., Li, Y., Peng, Y., Liang, J., Wang, H., Nakanishi, H., Deng, Y., & Qing, H. (2019). Pterostilbene, an active component of the dragon’s blood extract, acts as an antidepressant in adult rats. Psychopharmacology, 236(4), 1323–1333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-5138-7