Pramiracetam powder (68497-62-1)

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Category: SKU: N/A

Name:Pramiracetam

CAS:68497-62-1

Molecular Formula:Pramiracetam

STORAGE:Store in a cool and dry place. Keep away from direct sunlight and heat.

 

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Pramiracetam powder (68497-62-1) video

 

Pramiracetam powder Base Information

Name Pramiracetam powder
CAS 68497-62-1
Purity 98%
Chemical name N-[2-[Bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide; Amacetam; Vinpotropil
Synonyms Pramiracetam
Molecular Formula C14H27N3O2
Molecular Weight 269.389g/mol
Melting Point 47-48°C
InChI Key ZULJGOSFKWFVRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Form powder
Appearance White
Half Life 4.5-6.5  hours
Solubility Soluble in DMSO, H2O: soluble10mg/mL, clear
Storage Condition Dry, dark and at 0 – 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).
Application pramiracetam is an inhibitor of PREP.
Testing Document Available

 

Pramiracetam and its Uses

A decrease in cognitive function and memory forming skills can significantly alter the quality of life. These symptoms, to an extent, can be the result of aging and the mental decline associated with it. However, in most cases, exaggerated cognitive decline and reduced memory are the results of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. 

A decreased ability to focus and concentrate is also seen in childhood psychiatric disorders and is a common problem neurodivergent children and young adults face. There have been several medications to improve these symptoms and help people form memories, focus, and live an overall higher quality of life. 

Pramiracetam is a stimulant that performs similar functions, although that is not what it was initially being studied for. Without a clear mechanism of action, it is believed to improve cognitive function and hence the quality of life, better than most stimulants. 

 

What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is a nootropic agent belonging to the group of synthetic racetam drugs. Racetams are drugs with the same basic chemical structure containing pyrrolidone nucleus and all of them are used for the purpose of enhancing cognitive function. The initial racetam drug was Piracetam, which was discovered in the late 1960s. Although the exact mechanism of action of the drug is not yet understood, around twenty more racetams have since then been studied, discovered, and introduced in the market. Pramiracetam is one of the newer racetams that is very similar in structure and function to Piracetam. 

Pramiracetam, along with other racetams, is advertised as a memory-boosting medication that focuses on increasing attention span. It is believed to cause these actions by affecting the neurotransmitters produced by the brain. However, it is worth noting that none of these claims of Pramiracetam are backed by scientific evidence. Most scientific studies published on the efficacy of Pramiracetam or other racetams have produced positive results but none of those results are reproducible in other studies, hence, making the scientific community question the legibility of the initial studies. 

Pramiracetam was discovered by scientists working at Parke-Davis in the late 1970s and was patented till 1996. The drug is marketed under the trade name Pramistar and is being used in Eastern Europe for the purpose of enhancing cognition in the elderly, especially those suffering from neurodegenerative disorders and vascular dementia. However, it is worth mentioning that this medication is not approved by the FDA for use as a dietary supplement or a drug. In fact, it is labeled by the FDA as a new, unapproved drug. 

 

Mechanism of Action of Pramiracetam

The mechanism of action of Pramiracetam, like other racetams, is not known. The main reason behind this is the lack of research performed on human cells and subjects, which leaves the workings of this compound to be a history. However, there are three hypothesized mechanisms of actions of Pramiracetam, that are supported by studies performed on the animal models. It is important to note that none of these are believed to be the actual mechanism of action in humans, and are just theories that require further research to be proven. 

 

· Affect Acetylcholine levels in the body

According to a study performed on animal models in 1983, well after the initial discovery of pramiracetam, it was found that this cognition-enhancing agent has no effect whatsoever on the levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and so on. Moreover, it was found that this agent had no effect on their receptors either, in the brain resulting in questions being raised about the benefits of the compound. 

In the same study, it was discovered that despite having no effect, either directly or indirectly on the neurotransmitters, Pramiracetam did cause a significant increase in the uptake of choline in the hippocampal synapses. This is the most accepted theory on the functioning of Pramiracetam as this effect in the hippocampus, the area of the brain responsible for memory formation and retention, could result in increased neuronal activity, and hence improve memory. 

 

· Increased nitric oxide in the brain

Nitric oxide is a vasodilator and a key neurotransmitter in the brain with its ability to improve attention, learning, and memory processes in the brain. These effects were initially studied in the 1990s, especially the role of nitric oxide in the hippocampal region of the brain of animal models. The results of the studies performed in the animal models were replicated and reproduced in humans, proving the role of nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter in the brain. 

Pramiracetam, like other racetams, is believed to increase the levels of nitric oxide in the brain, hence improving attention and learning processes. This effect could be the main reason behind the ability of this agent to improve cognition and attention span in adolescents and young adults. However, these findings are not replicated in human subjects yet which means that this mechanism of action cannot be widely accepted or proposed to be the only mechanism of action of Pramiracetam. 

 

· Acts on adrenal hormones

Some researchers believe that Pramiracetam has memory-enhancing effects as a result of the agent’s action on the adrenal gland and its hormones, especially aldosterone and cortisol. The rise of this hypothesis is a result of the discovery that Pramiracetam and other racetams lose their ability to increase memory forming and retention in animal models that have undergone adrenalectomy. Since then, it is believed that racetams must have some effect on cortisol and aldosterone to be able to produce improved cognitive skills, although the exact mechanism is not yet known, even in animal models. 

 

History and Medical Research into Pramiracetam

Racetams were developed as cognition-enhancing agents in the late 1960s, and since then, many different compounds have been studied that may have the same effects as racetams. Pramiracetam was initially being studied for its effects on patients with Alzheimer’s Disease.

Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disorder that is multifactorial in etiology and known to begin developing in middle age, although the symptoms may not present themselves until later on in life. The main symptoms are memory loss and inability to retain new memories along with decreased mental and cognitive function and irritable mood. Given the nootropic nature of Pramiracetam, it was believed that it may be useful however, the project was scrapped after unsatisfying results were produced in Phase two clinical trials. 

It was then made into an adjunct therapy for electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, the drug after being given the status of the orphan drug for MDD treatment was removed from the list of orphan drugs in 1991. Since then it has been placed on the list of unapproved, new drugs, and the use of the drug is considered illegal in the States.

 

Pramiracetam Benefits

The use of Pramiracetam is associated with several benefits that are responsible for the fame of the nootropic agent, especially amongst young adults prior to examinations. The benefits associated with Pramiracetam use include:

Pramiracetam can boost memory in patients with decreased memory retention and the inability to form proper memories. A new study also found that Pramiracetam may be beneficial in improving memory forming skills in patients with traumatic brain injury.

Moreover, Pramiracetam is believed to have other neuroprotective effects as it is believed to be able to improve cognition and attention span along with different learning abilities in patients with traumatic brain injury. 

 

Side Effects of Pramiracetam

Due to the lack of available data on Pramiracetam, especially on humans, it is difficult to say with certainty what the benefits or the side effects of this compound might be. The known adverse effects of Pramiracetam include: 

  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Insomnia

A study performed on both animal and human models found that the drug was well tolerated by everyone, although those were the preliminary findings of the study and further results have yet not been published. 

Another study performed with the purpose of analyzing the safety of Pramiracetam concluded that it has no adverse effects associated with it. However, this study only studied the effects of one single dose, given one single time to healthy individuals, and then made that conclusion. It is not in the best interest of scientific discovery to acknowledge and admit this conclusion as an accurate conclusion. Until further research can be done, it is best to avoid any form of experimentation with this medication. 

The need for this warning has been mandated by the fact that adolescents and young adults are using pramiracetam as an attention-increasing drug to be taken a couple of hours before any cognitive testing. As the exact side effects of this compound are yet unknown, it is extremely unsafe for teenagers to be taking Pramiracetam. 

 

Where To Buy Pramiracetam Powder

Pramiracetam powder is available in Eastern Europe, however, its use is not approved by health authorities worldwide. Moreover, most of the current research does not claim to have any information about how this compound may react in the body or the potential interactions it may have with other drugs in a person’s system.

 

Pramiracetam (68497-62-1) Reference

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