Glutathione Powder (By zymotechnics)

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Name:Glutathione

CAS:70-18-8

Molecular Formula:C20H32N6O12S2

STORAGE:Store in a cool and dry place. Keep away from direct sunlight and heat.

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Glutathione powder (70-18-8) video

 

 

Glutathione powder (70-18-8) Base Information

Name Glutathione powder
CAS 70-18-8
Purity 98%
Chemical name Glutathione;Glutathione Reduced
Synonyms GSI;GSH;copren;glutide;tathion;panaron;neuthion;isethion;glutinal;tathione
Molecular Formula C20H32N6O12S2
Molecular Weight 307.32
Melting Point 192-195 °C (dec.)(lit.)
InChI Key RWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
Form Powder
Appearance White or almost white crystalline powder
Half Life
Solubility Soluble in DMF, ethanol, water (20 mg/ml) at 25° C, PBS(pH7.2) (~10 mg/ml), diluted alcohol, liquid ammonia, and DMSO.
Storage Condition -20°C
Application L-Glutathione (GSH) reduced has been used in theelution buffer to elute GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fused proteins using glutathione-agarose beads.[1][2] It has been used to prepare a standard curve for GSH analyses.

May be used at 5-10 mM to elute glutathione S-transferase (GST) from glutathione agarose.

Testing Document Available

 

What is Glutathione?

Glutathione is one of the most powerful antioxidants in the body. It is produced in the liver. It is a tripeptide made from the amino acids cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. It helps to neutralize oxidative stress from free radicals and prevents damage to important cellular components caused by the effects of reactive oxygen species. It is also involved in building the tissues and repairing damaged structures.

 

How does Glutathione Work?

Glutathione is a low molecular weight antioxidant that gets synthesized in cells. It is a powerful antioxidant. It is synthesized by the addition of cysteine to glutamate and then by adding glycine. The sulfhydryl or thiol group (-SH) of the cysteine is the one that gets involved in reduction and conjugation reactions. These reactions are responsible for removing the peroxidases and xenobiotic compounds. Glutathione also works to regulate the cell cycle.

Glutathione removes many reactive species. Most molecules in the body undergo redox reactions and produce reactive oxygen species like superoxide (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Glutathione participates in neutralizing these H2O2 molecules.

It detoxifies chemicals, toxins, and pollutants in the body. It can also conjugate to drugs, making them more soluble, easier to metabolize, and then remove from the body.

H2O2 molecules are cellular metabolites that are produced in peroxisomes and get catalyzed by catalase enzymes. Outside peroxisomes, H2O2 is neutralized by the glutathione peroxidase enzyme. It then converts H202 into a water molecule (H20). The glutathione peroxidase enzyme needs selenium to function in the body. Hence it is a vital dietary requirement.

The level of glutathione can be maintained by consuming cysteine and methylene from the diet. Generally, methylene levels decrease during the detoxification processes. There are two detoxification processes: phase I and phase II.

Phase I is the detoxification process that converts hydrophobic toxin molecules (RH) to hydrophilic molecules (ROH). Glutathione works as a co-factor in this as well. This conversion makes it easy for the toxins to be processed in phase II detoxification.

Phase II detoxification process contains reactions like sulfation, methylation, conjugation, etc. It converts the hydrophilic materials from Phase I to secondary metabolites. This conversion makes it easier for the body to remove those toxins.

During the sulfation process, if sulfate is not enough, the body breaks down cysteine, the amino acid needed to make glutathione. This action causes a reduction in glutathione level, leading to decreased neutralization of H2O2. It then causes an increase in the amount of hydroxyl radical, which could degrade membranes by lipid peroxidation. The results could be devastating, with rapid degradation of the cells, leading to diseases like cancer, diabetes, etc.

Glutathione is also involved in the synthesis of DNA and proteins. It can also help in amino acid transport, enzyme activation, and developing and maintaining the immune system.

Glutathione also takes part in leukotriene synthesis. It also helps to detoxify a compound called methylglyoxal, a toxic by-product of metabolism. The glyoxalase enzymes regulate this activity. The glyoxylate I and II convert methylglyoxal with help of glutathione into S-D-Lactoyl-glutathione. It is then further converted to glutathione and D-lactate.

Glutathione can also neutralize the effects of acetaminophen overdose. It does this by combining with n-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), the reactive cytochrome P450 metabolite formed after the toxic overdose of acetaminophen. Glutathione binds to NAPQI and detoxifies it.

Thus, this antioxidant has many uses in the human body. Its levels may decrease due to many factors, such as toxins, stress, poor nutrition, old age, sedentary lifestyle, and poor nutrition.

L-Glutathione (GSH) has also been used to elute GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fused proteins. It is done by using glutathione-agarose beads. It has also been used to prepare a standard curve for GSH analyses.

Synthetic glutathione is available as glutathione powder which is a white or almost white crystalline powder.

 

History of Glutathione

Glutathione was discovered in 1998 by J.de Rey-Paihade. It was first extracted from the natural extracts of yeast, egg whites, and animal tissues. It was first named Philothion. In 1921, Hopkins suggested that philothion is a dipeptide containing cysteine and glutamate, but this fact was overlooked.

This substance was then named ‘glutathione’. Later in 1927, it was found that glutathione is not a dipeptide, but instead, a tripeptide containing glutamate-cysteine along with an additional amino acid, glycine. This structural feature was confirmed by Harington and Mead in 1935. At that time, glutathione was made by mixing N-carbobenzoxy cysteine and glycine ethyl ester.

 

Benefits of Glutathione

As it is one of the most predominant and powerful antioxidants in the body, Glutathione powder has many uses.

Some of these uses are:

 

Reduces Oxidative Stress

The imbalance of free radicals and the body’s abilities to neutralize them can lead to many diseases and disorders. This includes conditions like diabetes, cancer, etc. It has been found that glutathione deficiency is prominent in patients with these diseases [1]. Hence, supplementing with glutathione powder can help decrease the symptoms of these diseases and even prevent their occurrence.

 

Improves Symptoms of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Diseases in the liver can be exacerbated by a deficiency of antioxidants like glutathione. This could worsen conditions of fatty liver disease in patients, especially in those that consume alcohol. Glutathione has shown to be effective in patients with fatty liver disease. A study showed that glutathione decreases in patients with chronic liver disease, alcohol or non-alcohol related. An intravenous administration of high-dose glutathione has shown an improvement in the hepatic tests [2]. Thus glutathione powder may help treat the conditions of liver disease.

 

Improves Insulin Resistance

The production of glutathione decreases with age. Studies have shown that low glutathione levels are associated with less burning of fat and higher levels of stored fat in the body[3]. This also leads to lesser insulin resistance. Adding cysteine and glycine to the diet can help to increase glutathione levels, which improves insulin resistance and fat burning.

 

Improves symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system and is characterized by the destruction of the nerves. It usually occurs as the person ages and has no cure. Glutathione level decreases in Parkinson’s disease. A study has shown that glutathione powder may be able to decrease the effects of Parkinson’s disease and improve neurological functions [4]. However, further studies are required to show its complete effectiveness.

 

Improves Skin Conditions

Glutathione has been shown to have anti-aging and anti-melanogenic effects. A study conducted in 2017 showed that a reduced form of glutathione, up to 500mg per day, has a skin-lightening effect on the human skin. In this study, one group of healthy female subjects were given 250 mg of glutathione per day, another given oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the third group was given a placebo for 12 weeks. At the end of the timeframe, it was found that the women had comparatively fewer wrinkles than the ones who took the placebo. Hence, glutathione can help lighten the pigments in the skin, decrease wrinkles and improve skin conditions [5].

 

Effect Against Autoimmune Disease

Oxidative stress can increase due to chronic inflammations and autoimmune conditions. These include rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, lupus, etc. Glutathione levels are less in these conditions [6]. So supplementing with glutathione powder may help reduce oxidative stress and reduce symptoms of autoimmune diseases.

 

Effect on Infertility

Excessive production of reactive oxygen species by abnormal spermatozoa is one of the reasons for infertility. So supplying antioxidants like glutathione may be able to decrease such conditions and help in male fertility [7]. Similarly, it may help to decrease the oxidative stress in the female reproductive system and fight the formation of free radicals [8]. Hence, it may be effective in both male and female fertility.

 

Effect on Autism

It has been shown that children with autism have more levels of oxidative damage and low levels of glutathione in the brain. A clinical trial conducted on children of age 3 to 13 was done where they were given oral or transdermal glutathione [9]. The children showed improvement in cysteine, glutathione, and plasma sulfate levels. So it may help in improving the symptoms of autism as well.

 

Effect on Chemotherapy Drug-Induced Neuropathy

Glutathione has been shown to decrease peripheral neuropathy in mice treated with anti-cancer drugs. A study was conducted on mice with neuropathy which resulted from being treated with oxaliplatin, a platinum-based cancer drug [10]. Giving them glutathione seemed to relieve symptoms caused by the neuropathy. Hence, it may help in relieving neuropathy symptoms as well.

 

Side Effects of Glutathione

  • Abdominal cramps.
  • Difficulty breathing due to bronchial constriction.
  • Allergic reactions, such as rash.

The inhaled form is contraindicated in asthma. There is no known drug interaction of glutathione with other drugs till date.

 

Dosage of Glutathione

Glutathione is used in the treatment of various conditions. The general oral dosage is 250mg to 500mg per day.

 

Where Can You Buy Glutathione?

Glutathione can be bought directly from the Glutathione powder manufacturer company. It comes in packages of 1kg per packet or 25kg per drum. However, this can be customized according to your needs. This product is made with the best ingredients. It is produced under strict guidelines and using proper safety measures. This drug needs to be stored at a temperature of -20°C. This is to prevent it from interacting with other chemicals in the environment.

 

References Cited:

  1. Lutchmansingh, F. K., Hsu, J. W., Bennett, F. I., Badaloo, A. V., McFarlane-Anderson, N., Gordon-Strachan, G. M., … & Boyne, M. S. (2018). Glutathione metabolism in type 2 diabetes and its relationship with microvascular complications and glycemia. PloS one, 13(6), e0198626.
  2. Dentico, P., Volpe, A., Buongiorno, R., Grattagliano, I., Altomare, E., Tantimonaco, G., … & Schiraldi, O. (1995). Glutathione in the treatment of chronic fatty liver diseases. Recenti progressi in medicina, 86(7-8), 290-293.
  3. El-Hafidi, M., Franco, M., Ramírez, A. R., Sosa, J. S., Flores, J. A. P., Acosta, O. L., … & Cardoso-Saldaña, G. (2018). Glycine increases insulin sensitivity and glutathione biosynthesis and protects against oxidative stress in a model of sucrose-induced insulin resistance. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2018.
  4. Wang, H. L., Zhang, J., Li, Y. P., Dong, L., & Chen, Y. Z. (2021). Potential use of glutathione as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 21(2), 1-1.
  5. Weschawalit, S., Thongthip, S., Phutrakool, P., & Asawanonda, P. (2017). Glutathione and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 10, 147.
  6. Perricone, C., De Carolis, C., & Perricone, R. (2009). Glutathione: a key player in autoimmunity. Autoimmunity Reviews, 8(8), 697-701.
  7. Irvine, D. S. (1996). Glutathione as a treatment for male infertility. Reviews of Reproduction, 1(1), 6-12.
  8. Adeoye, O., Olawumi, J., Opeyemi, A., & Christiania, O. (2018). Review on the role of glutathione on oxidative stress and infertility. JBRA assisted reproduction, 22(1), 61.
  9. Rose, S., Melnyk, S., Pavliv, O., Bai, S., Nick, T. G., Frye, R. E., & James, S. J. (2012). Evidence of oxidative damage and inflammation associated with low glutathione redox status in the autism brain. Translational psychiatry, 2(7), e134-e134.
  10. Lee, M., Cho, S., Roh, K., Chae, J., Park, J. H., Park, J., … & Lee, S. (2017). Glutathione alleviated peripheral neuropathy in oxaliplatin-treated mice by removing aluminum from dorsal root ganglia. American journal of translational research, 9(3), 926.

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