Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) powder, a coenzyme of vitamin-like nutrient related to the B-vitamin family, has many other popular names, such as methoxatin, BioPQQ, etc PQQ is naturally found in most plant foods, fruits, vegetables (in miniscule amounts) and relative high levels can be detected in fermented Soybeans products such as green Soybeans, spinach, rape blossoms, green peppers, Kiwi fruits, etc.
|Chemical name||4,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinoline-2,7,9-tricarboxylic acid|
|Synonyms||Coenzyme PQQ |
|Molecular Weight||330.208 g/mol|
|Melting Point||200 °C|
|Form||A crystalline solid|
|Appearance||red brown powder|
|Half Life||3–5 h|
|Solubility||Soluble in Methanol and Water|
|Application||A redox/cofactor found in a a class of enzymes called quinoproteins |
dietary supplements,food additives,medicines,drugs
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) powder, also called methoxatin, is a redox cofactor. It is found in soil and foods such as kiwifruit, as well as human breast milk. Enzymes containing Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder are called quinoproteins. Glucose dehydrogenase, one of the quinoproteins, is used as a glucose sensor. Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder stimulates growth in bacteria.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder was found to improve not only immediate memory, but also other higher brain functions such as spatial awareness. The effects of Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder were enhanced when the substance was used with CoQ10. The key benfits of Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder include mitochondrial health, brain support, and cardiovascular health.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder was discovered by J.G. Hauge as the third redox cofactor after nicotinamide and flavin in bacteria (although he hypothesised that it was naphthoquinone). Anthony and Zatman also found the unknown redox cofactor in alcohol dehydrogenase. In 1979, Salisbury and colleagues as well as Duine and colleagues extracted this prosthetic group from methanol dehydrogenase of methylotrophs and identified its molecular structure. Adachi and colleagues discovered that Pyrroloquinoline quinone was also found in Acetobacter.
How does pyrroloquinoline quinone work? Studies suggest Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder supports healthy mitochondrial structure and function to help maintain healthy mentalfunctions like recall, memory and cognition as we age.
Research has shown Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder:
The benefits of taking Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder come from a few different mechanisms, all of which involve cellular proteins. Firstly, PQQ activates a receptor located in the nucleus of cells calledNR1C3. This nuclear receptor is responsible for general mobilization, including cell growth and mitochondrial respiration.
Similarly to the actions of the CILTEP stack, Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder activates the CREB signaling protein, which directly causes the growth of new mitochondria and encourages the formation of new nerve connection, in the context of the brain. Additionally, Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder interacts with a number of internal signaling molecules that aid in protection from oxidative stress. This is particularly important for brain cells, which use a high amount of energy and produce many free radicals as a result.
-Slowing mitochondrial aging.
-Increased mitochondria = increased energy production.
-NGF triggers growth of nerve cells to repair damaged nerves from stroke or other injury.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder could also play an important role in protecting the brain from the devastation of a stroke.
An ischemic stroke occurs when the loss of blood supply to a specific area of the brain deprives the brain of the essential nutrients/oxygen it needs. The result is brain cell death and loss of function reflected in the region of the brain where the damage occurred. Depending on the area affected, this can result in paralysis, memory impairment, and even death.
In lab studies, Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder reduced ischemic damage, potentially improving the quality of life following a stroke.
This was clearly demonstrated in an animal model of ischemic stroke. When PQQ supplementation was given before ischemia was induced, it significantly reduced the size of the damaged brain tissue region. Surprisingly, PQQ had a similar protective effect even when it was administered after the ischemia was induced.26
Another study showed similar neuroprotective effects. It also showed that PQQ led to significantly improved neurobehavioral scores after the stroke.27 These findings are tremendously exciting for those working in the area of human stroke prevention and treatment. The implication is that stroke patients could be given PQQ in the emergency room and reduce paralyzing brain damage.