Piracetam powder is an analytical reference standard that is structurally categorized as a nootropic. It is a cyclic derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that improves learning, memory, brain metabolism, and capacity in animal models. It has shown efficacy in stroke rehabilitation in animal models. Although its mechanism of action remains unclear, piracetam has been shown to alter the physical properties of cell membranes and to protect against hypoxia, which might underlie neuroprotective and antithrombotic actions. This product is intended for research and forensic applications.
|Synonyms||2-(2-Oxopyrrolidino)acetamide, 2-Oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide, Pyracetam, 7491-74-9, Ciclofalina, Gabacet, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Normabrain, Pyramem|
|Molecular Weight||269.38 g/mol|
|Melting Point||152 °C (306 °F)|
|Appearance||White or off-white powder|
|Half Life||4-5 hr|
|Solubility||Soluble to 100 mM in Water|
|Storage Condition||Store at room temperature, in a sealed airtight container, protected from heat, light and humidity.|
|Application||Piracetam is a modulator of neurotransmitter-induced ion flux, and is proposed to enhance neurotransmission via this modulation.|
Piracetam is the prototype for racetam supplements, which are a group of synthetic supplements intended to provide a cognitive boost.
Piracetam has a history of being used to treat cognitive impairment. According to a meta-analysis on human studies, piracetam improves general cognition when supplemented by people in a state of cognitive decline, such as the kind that comes with aging. Though piracetam may be a useful supplement for improving longevity, it offers limited benefits for healthy people.
Healthy people supplementing piracetam do experience little to no cognitive benefit. Though piracetam supplementation in healthy people is understudied, preliminary evidence suggests that piracetam is most effective for older people.Piracetam supplementation has also been found to reduce the chances of a breath-holding spell in children.
Piracetam enhances cellular membrane fluidity. This mechanism explains why piracetam is able to improve cognition, particularly in elderly people.
Piracetam is as effective as aspirin when it comes to preventing blood clotting, which makes it a useful supplemental intervention after cardiovascular trauma.
Piracetam was first made some time between the 1950s and 1964 by Corneliu E. Giurgea. There are reports of it being used for epilepsy in the 1950s.
Piracetam’s mechanism of action, as with racetams in general, is not fully understood. The drug influences neuronal and vascular functions and influences cognitive function without acting as a sedative or stimulant. Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor, although this action is very weak and its clinical effects may not necessarily be mediated by this action. It is hypothesized to act on ion channels or ion carriers, thus leading to increased neuron excitability. GABA brain metabolism and GABA receptors are not affected by piracetam.
Piracetam improves the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine via muscarinic cholinergic (ACh) receptors, which are implicated in memory processes. Furthermore, piracetam may have an effect on NMDA glutamate receptors, which are involved with learning and memory processes. Piracetam is thought to increase cell membrane permeability. Piracetam may exert its global effect on brain neurotransmission via modulation of ion channels (i.e., Na+, K+). It has been found to increase oxygen consumption in the brain, apparently in connection to ATP metabolism, and increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brains. Piracetam, while in the brain, appears to increase the synthesis of cytochrome b5, which is a part of the electron transport mechanism in mitochondria. But in the brain, it also increases the permeability of some intermediates of the Krebs cycle through the mitochondrial outer membrane.
Piracetam may facilitate the deformability of erythrocytes in capillary.Peripheral vascular effects of piracetam have suggested its use potential for vertigo, dyslexia, Raynaud’s phenomenon and sickle cell anemia. There is no evidence to support piracetam’s use in sickle cell crisis prevention or for fetal distress during childbirth. There is no evidence for benefit of piracetam with acute ischemic stroke, though there is debate as to its utility during stroke rehabilitation.
 Piracetam, Compound Summary for CID 4843. PubChem: Open Chemistry Database, available online from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/piracetam [Accessed Jul 16, 2018]
 Zhang J, Wei R, Chen Z, Luo B. (2016). Piracetam for Aphasia in Post-stroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. CNS Drugs, 30(7):575-87.
 Al Hajeri A, Fedorowicz Z. (2016). Piracetamfor reducing the incidence of painful sickle cell disease crises. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2:CD006111.
 Ahmed AH, Oswald RE (March 2010). “Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.