Phenylpiracetam powder (also known as Phenotropil and Carphedon) is a nootropic compound derivative of the parent compound in the Racetam family, Piracetam. It was first created in 1983 by a team of Russian scientists, and has recently become more well-known outside of Russia. Phenylpiracetam powder differs from Piracetam in the addition of a bulk phenyl grouping off the 4 position on the 2-pyrrolidone base structure. A phenyl grouping is a six-sided cyclic ring consisting of benzene, minus a hydrogen, leaving an open carbon bond available. Phenylpiracetam powderhas very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble.
02 Carphedon (Phenylpiracetam) (77472-70-9) video
03 Phenylpiracetam powder Base Information
|Name||Carphedon (Phenylpiracetam) powder|
|Half Life||3-5 hours|
|Solubility||As piracetam is water soluble, it shows the highest solubility in water. However, it is able to dissolve in oil heated to high temperatures, but at a diminished rate. In both room temperature oil and ethanol, piracetam shows even less solubility.|
|Storage Condition||Store at room temperature, in a sealed airtight container, keep the air out, protected from heat, light and humidity.|
|Application||Phenylpiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs.|
04 (77472-70-9) General Description
Carphedon (Phenylpiracetam) powder (4 fenilpiratsetam “Phenotropil”) is a drug belonging to the group of neuro protective drugs. Phenylpiracetam has nootropic, anxiolytic, antiastenicheskoe, anticonvulsant and neuro modulating actions. The drug can have a pronounced stimulatory effect on motor responses and improve physical performance. Phenylpiracetam has previously been used by athletes, and is now included in the WADA list of prohibited during sports.
Carphedon (Phenylpiracetam) powder was developed at the Institute of Biomedical Problems as a new generation psychostimulant capable of enhancing mental and physical performance of astronauts in different stages of varying duration space flight without compromising effect on the accuracy of operator activity at higher speeds, as well as making the right decisions in extreme conditions.
Carphedon (Phenylpiracetam) powder belongs to the family of derivatives of piracetam (2-pyrrolidone) and a phenyl-substituted piracetam. Adding the phenyl group presumably causes the change in the pharmacokinetic properties of piracetam (e.g., can improve the penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier).
05 (77472-70-9) History
Russian scientists during the Space Race developed phenylpiracetam as a brain-boosting serum to improve mental resilience. This was then provided to cosmonauts undergoing the rigors of life beyond the earth’s atmosphere and gravitationalfield.
According to cosmonaut Aleksandr Serebrov, phenylpiracetam brushes or combs through the entire body, aligning the mind and eliminating irritability and impulsiveness.During his famous 197 day excursion aboard the Mir space station, Serebov relied on a supply of phenylpiracetam brought aboard from his Soyuz spacecraft.Today, this prominent member of the racetam nootropic family has been studied fora wide range of benefits for brain health and neural function.
06 (77472-70-9) Mechanism Of Action
Phenylpiracetam molecule contains a single chiral center of the carbon atom of the quaternary pyrrolidone cycle used in the pharmaceutical practice, a racemic mixture of R- and S-enantiomers. According to a study conducted on animals, both enantiomers are comparable in severity of effects as an antidepressant and stimulate motor reactions, but a nootropic effect is manifested only by R-isomer of phenylpiracetam .
The mechanism of pharmacological action of Phenylpiracetam is not reliabl known. There is evidence that it has direct affinity for nicotinic cholinergic receptors,and may also increase the concentration of NMDA-glutamate receptors (although not directly associated to them). After oral administration, rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, distributed in various organs and tissues, readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. The absolute bioavailability of the drug, when administered, was up to 100%. Maximum blood levels achieved after 1 hour. Phenylpiracetam not metabolized in the body is excreted unchanged, about 40% is excreted in the urine, 60% – in the bile. The half-life for Phenylpiracetam is approximately 3-5 hours. Toxicity is relatively low. Declared by the manufacturer a wide range of indications for the use phenylpiracetam , but no significant results of clinical trials that would confirm the effectiveness of the drug, in scientific journals practically been published.
07 (77472-70-9) Application
♦ Memory and Cognitive Enhancement
Clinical trials show that phenylpiracetam improved cognition in stroke patients and patients with organic brain lesions.While there is no documented research on how phenylpiracetam affects young, healthy individuals, many users report that it makes them alert, motivated, and productive.Some users say it particularly enhances memory, bringing back memories from many years ago.Animals studies indicate that phenylpiracetam has anti-amnesic properties.
♦ Energy Booster
Phenylpiracetam is known to act as a psychostimulant, an effect that may
be due in part to its chemical resemblance to phenethylamine substances like Adderall.The extent of phenylpiracetam ’s energizing effect on humans has not been studied, but animal testing confirms that it increases locomotor activity.A2015 patent application for phenylpiracetam ’s use as a sleep disorder treatment says tests on rats indicated the compound’s ability to combat sleepiness and improve motivation is stronger than that of methylphenidate and amphetamine.Man user self-reports indicate that phenylpiracetam ’s stimulant effects are similarto those of modafinil, decreasing feelings of fatigue and improving both productivity and social fluency.Other users say its effects are similar to those of dextroamphetamine.Phenylpiracetam is included on WADA’s list of banned stimulants.
♦ Anxiety Reducer and Antidepressant
Animal studies suggest that phenylpiracetam can act as an anti-depressant and anxiolytic, preventing anxiety and fear response while increasing locomotion and exploratory behavior in mice.Though there are no documented human studies this aspect of phenylpiracetam , user reports confirm that it has significant anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects. Former Russian cosmonaut Aleksandr Serebrov,who took phenylpiracetam during his 197-day space voyage, said it was prescribed for its ability to enhance the performance of both the mind and body under high stress. Serebov described phenylpiracetam as an “equalizer of the whole organism” and “completely excluding impulsiveness and irritability, inevitable in the conditions of high nervous tension of space flight.
08 (77472-70-9) More research
Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil) is a nootropic of the racetam family, and as its name suggests it is a phenyl- derivative of piracetam. Phenylpiracetam isreported to be more neuroprotective than piracetam is, but also possesses psychostimulatory properties and is reported to enhance physical performance.
There is a fair bit of research to suggest that phenylpiracetam is effective, like other racetam drugs, in attenuating the rate of and symptoms of cognitive decline. Many of these studies use phenylpiracetam for over one month’s time, and the benefits seen may only apply to organic causes of cognitive decline (dementia and stroke) rather than traumatic brain injury.
There is only one rat study noting cognitive enhacement in otherwise healthy young rats, and this study only noted benefit with the R-isomer (the racemic mixture, which is commonly sold, failed to outperform control). While cognitive enhancing propertes of phenylpiracetam in youth cannot be ruled out, they are possibly distinct from the psychostimulatory properties (which occur with said racemic mixture and the R-isomer).
09 (77472-70-9) Document Download
10 (77472-70-9) Reference
- Savchenko, A. I.; Zakharova, N. S.; Stepanov, I. N. (2005). “The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions”. Zhurnal Nevrologii I Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova. 105 (12): 22–26. PMID 16447562.
- Bobkov, I.; Morozov, I. S.; Glozman, O. M.; Nerobkova, L. N.; Zhmurenko, L. A. (1983). “Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam–4-phenylpiracetam”. Biulleten’ Eksperimental’noi Biologii I Meditsiny. 95 (4): 50–53. PMID 6403074.
- Tiurenkov IN, Bagmetov MN, Epishina VV (2007). “Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenotropil and piracetam in laboratory animals with experimental cerebral ischemia”. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 70 (2): 24–29. PMID 17523446.
- 01. Overview
- 02. Carphedon (Phenylpiracetam) (77472-70-9) video
- 03. Phenylpiracetam powder Base Information
- 04. (77472-70-9) General Description
- 05. (77472-70-9) History
- 06. (77472-70-9) Mechanism Of Action
- 07. (77472-70-9) Application
- 08. (77472-70-9) More research
- 09. (77472-70-9) Document Download
- 10. (77472-70-9) Reference