Hyaluronic acid(HA) is a straight chain macromolecular mucopolysaccharide composed Of repeat disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. It widely consists in the extracellular space of human and animal tissue, vitreum, umbilical cord, skin joints synovia and cockscomb, etc. The commercial HA is commonly a sodium salt, called sodium hyaluronate, habitually called hyaluronic acid. HA is a new biological at home and abroad. Its molecular weight is from several ten thousand to several million. It’s aqueous solution has outstanding moisture keeping ability, high viscoelasticity and lubricity. It is widely used in cosmetics, pharmacy and health and beauty food.
|Name||Hyaluronic acid powder|
|Chemical name||Hyaluronic acid|
|Synonyms||Mucoitin;Sepracoat;Hyaluronic acid;Hydluronic acid;Hyaluronate Acid;Hyalobarrier gel;aluronic acid、HA;Haluronic acid、HA;Chlamyhyaluronic acid;Hyaluronic acid powder|
|Half Life||HA has a half-life of 3 to 5 min in the blood, less than a day in the skin and 1 to 3 weeks in the cartilage|
|Solubility||Soluble in Water, Insoluble in Alcohol,|
|Storage Condition||Shields light the airtight 0-8 ℃ preservatio|
|Application||Synovitis agent (veterinary).|
Hyaluronic acid is a completely transparent, non-adhesive, water-soluble and grease-free acid mucopolysaccharide. Its molecular weight is between a few hundred thousand to millions, and it makes up the dermis layer of the skin. Its unique molecular structure and physicochemical properties has many important physiological functions inside the body, such as lubricating joints, adjusting vascular permeability, adjusting proteins, diffusing and transporting water electrolytes, and promoting wound healing. Hyaluronic acid has a unique water retention effect and has the best known natural moisturizing properties, making it the ideal natural moisturizer.
Hyaluronic acid is an essential drug in ophthalmic “sticky surgeries”. It is used in cataract surgery, in which its sodium salt remains in the anterior chamber to maintain depth in the anterior chamber and ensure a clear surgical view. It reduces the occurences of postoperative inflammation and complications, thus improving the vision-correcting effects of the surgery. It is also used in complicated retinol detachment surgery. Hyaluronic acid has a low molecular weight and is considered the ideal natural moisturizing agent, so it is used as an additive in high-end makeup and as a moisturizer in creams, gels, lotions, masks, and serums. It is also used medically as a moisturizer to improve moisture retention and lubrication, and it also expands capillaries and improves skin health. For example, hyaluronic acid with a low molecular weight can be used as a lubricant in surgeries (such as knee surgery), while those with high molecular weight can be used as surgical lubricant and as a substitute for vitreous in ophthalmic surgery.
The first hyaluronan biomedical product, Healon, was developed in the 1970s and 1980s by Pharmacia, and approved for use in eye surgery (i.e., corneal transplantation, cataract surgery, glaucoma surgery, and surgery to repair retinal detachment). Other biomedical companies also produce brands of hyaluronan for ophthalmic surgery.
Native hyaluronic acid has a relatively short half-life (shown in rabbits) so various manufacturing techniques have been deployed to extend the length of the chain and stabilise the molecule for its use in medical applications. The introduction of protein-based cross-links, the introduction of free-radical scavenging molecules such as sorbitol, and minimal stabilisation of the HA chains through chemical agents such as NASHA (non-animal stabilised hyaluronic acid) are all techniques that have been used.
In the late 1970s, intraocular lens implantation was often followed by severe corneal edema, due to endothelial cell damage during the surgery. It was evident that a viscous, clear, physiologic lubricant to prevent such scraping of the endothelial cells was needed.
The name was changed to “hyaluronan” in 1986, because the polysaccharide synthesized by mammalian cells and certain species of microbes is a salt, not an acid. Since then, use of the name “hyaluronan” has become more prevalent.
Although the predominant mechanism of HA is unknown, in vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies demonstrate various physiological effects of exogenous HA.
Hyaluronic acid is an acid mucopolysaccharide.
It displays many important physiological functions in the body with its unique molecular structure and physicochemical properties.
It can lubricate joints, regulate the permeability of blood vessel walls, regulate proteins, promote the diffusion and operation of water and electrolytes and promote wound healing.
Hyaluronic acid has a special water retention and is the most moisturizing substance found in nature. It is called the ideal natural moisturizing factor
Hyaluronic acid has been FDA-approved to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via intra-articular injection. A review showed that the quality of studies supporting this use was mostly poor, with general absence of significant benefit, and intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid could possibly cause adverse effects.
Dry, scaly skin, such as that caused by atopic dermatitis, may be treated with skin lotion containing sodium hyaluronate as its active ingredient. Hyaluronic acid has been used in various formulations to create artificial tears to treat dry eye.
Hyaluronic acid is a common ingredient in skin care products. Hyaluronic acid is used as a dermal filler in cosmetic surgery. It is typically injected using either a classic sharp hypodermic needle or a micro-cannula. Complications include the severing of nerves and microvessels, pain, and bruising. In some cases, hyaluronic acid fillers result in a granulomatous foreign body reaction
Gangliang Huang, Hualiang Huang Drug Deliv. 2018; 25(1): 766–772. Published online 2018 Mar 14.