Berberine hydrochloride powder 633-65-8

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Name:Berberine hydrochloride

CAS:633-65-8

Molecular Formula:C20H18ClNO4

STORAGE:Store in a cool and dry place. Keep away from direct sunlight and heat.

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Chemical Base Information Base Information

Name Berberine hydrochloride
CAS 633-65-8
Purity 98%
Chemical name Berberine hydrochloride
Synonyms Berberine HCL,

berberine chloride,

Natural Yellow 18,

Benzodioxide,

Molecular Formula C20H18ClNO4
Molecular Weight 371.8 g/mol
Melting Point 193-196℃
InChI Key VKJGBAJNNALVAV-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Form powder
Appearance Yellow
Half Life /
Solubility Soluble in water (<1 mg/ml at 25° C)
Storage Condition /
Application Berberine hydrochloride is most commonly taken by mouth for diabetes, high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia), and high blood pressure. It is also applied to the skin to treat burns and canker sores
Testing Document Available

 

Berberine Hydrochloride

Berberine is an alkaloid chemical derived from plants and herbs that are readily available. This bitter-tasting, yellow powder was commonly used in Traditional medicine for several of its health benefits, and it is these benefits that are now backed by scientific evidence. Extracted from a group of shrubs known as Berberis, this alkaloid compound is also used as a fye dye to its bright yellow color. The yellow color of this chemical is also visible under ultraviolet fluorescence, which is why it is often used in the staining of heparin in mast cells.

Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt that belongs to the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids that are derived from different shrubs belonging to the Berberis family. However, this compound can also be extracted from other shrubs and plants, specifically the roots, bark, and stems of these plants.

Berberine, once ingested, undergoes a harmonious distribution to different parts of the body to produce multiple beneficial effects of the compound. Once it has served its purpose, the compound is metabolized in the liver, by the CYP2D enzyme, in both animal models and humans. It is metabolized into berberrubine and berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide as a result of the actions of liver enzymes, after which the compound is excreted into feces and urine.

Berberrubine and berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide are excreted into feces and urine, respectively, although the exact timing of the process is yet not known. According to some studies, the clearance of berberine from the body, even after 84 hours of ingestion was only 41 percent. This aspect of the metabolism of Berberine powder has to be studied further to note down the timing exactly.

 

Foods rich in Berberine

Berberine hydrochloride powder is derived from natural sources of the compound, and consuming these dietary sources may be able to provide the human body with berberine, although not in the same concentrated amounts as just taking berberine powder. The most important food source that contains berberine is turmeric, the plant root which is commonly used as a potent spice in South Asian cuisine.

Berberine is also found in the following food sources:

Goldenseal,

Barberry,

Oregon grape,

Tree turmeric.

Goldthread,

Phellodendron,

 

Mechanism of Action of Berberine Hydrochloride

Berberine hydrochloride is stored in the cells of the body, after being ingested and transported through the bloodstream to different parts of the body. Once it reaches these cells, it brings about changes to affect health positively, through various mechanisms of action.

The most potent effect of the compound is its activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase enzyme in the cells, which is the key regulator of metabolism and homeostasis in the body. For this reason, the enzyme is called the metabolic master switch. Along with this enzyme, berberine also affects other regulatory pathways which in turn may turn on or off the expression of different genes.

 

Benefits of Berberine Powder

Berberine powder has multiple benefits associated with it, most of which are backed by scientific evidence. These benefits are also the reason why the compound was used successfully in the treatment of multiple disorders in Traditional medicine. The benefits of the compound as proven by different kinds of researches are:

 

Management of Diabetes Mellitus

Berberine powder is able to manage the symptoms of diabetes and treat it with the same potency as many other anti-diabetic agents, especially Metformin. Metformin is the most common initial therapy used to treat diabetes. A randomized clinical trial performed on patients with diabetes mellitus studied this potency by randomly assigning either treatment with berberine or metformin to different groups of study participants. This clinical trial went on for three months and the results showed that both of these compounds are effective in managing diabetes, equally.

In the study, it was found that HBa1c levels and blood sugar levels along with the levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the body reduced significantly in both groups. These results led to the conclusion that both berberine and Glucophage, the brand name of metformin are almost equally effective in managing symptoms of diabetes.

Moreover, the effect of berberine on the management of diabetes follows a multifactorial approach. This is important because berberine is known to reduce blood sugar levels, but it wasn’t known how exactly it performs that function. Studies performed on diabetic patients who were exposed to berberine supplementation showed a significant improvement to the point that the blood sugars fell from diabetic criteria to the normal, healthy levels.

Berberine increases the efficiency of insulin in the body, and this is especially important as the increased incidence of diabetes mellitus is due to insulin resistance. Supplementation with the compound increases the response of peripheral cells to insulin, resulting in a net decrease in blood glucose levels.

Once glucose molecules are taken into the cell, as a result of increased response to insulin, they are stored there. These stored glucose molecules are subjected to increased breakdown by berberine as it stimulates glycolysis. Breaking down the sugars inside the cells is one of the many mechanisms through which berberine powder helps manage diabetes mellitus.

Studies have also shown that berberine decreases the production of glucose in the liver, as that is one of the mechanisms through which glucose levels increase in the body, apart from the consumption of carbohydrates. To combat the other mechanism of glucose increase, berberine reduces the absorption of carbohydrates in the gut. This helps decrease glucose levels in the body, significantly.

 

Treatment of infections

Berberine hydrochloride powder has been shown to have potent antimicrobial properties as it is able to combat different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and even parasites. These effects of the compound were studied in a laboratory setting where it was found that it inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterial agent responsible for multiple different infections. Moreover, in a similar study, it was found that berberine was responsible for stunted protein production and DNA production in microorganisms.

 

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant properties

Berberine powder was found to have anti-inflammatory properties that are believed to aid the anti-diabetic effects of berberine. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and research has found that berberine interferes with inflammatory signaling pathways. Moreover, berberine is found to have an effect on the free radicals in the body and reduces their efficiency significantly.

Due to these mechanisms of action, researchers are calling for the use of berberine hydrochloride powder in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Moreover, they are calling for its use in the management of heart diseases as they often begin with inflammation at the basic levels, before progressing into more severe outcomes.

 

Management of high cholesterol

While studying the effects of berberine on diabetes mellitus, researchers realized that it is able to decrease the absorption of triglycerides and LDL in the gut. This led to further research on the topic which exaggerated the anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of the compound.

A recent study into the matter showed that cholesterol levels decreased significantly with berberine supplementation and most importantly, these effects were obvious in all types of bad cholesterols. Meanwhile, the levels of good cholesterol or HDL increased significantly, hence reducing the risk of hypercholesterolemia and eventually, heart disease in the patients.

Another study found that berberine in fact also decreased the levels of apolipoprotein B, which is an important prognostic marker of heart diseases and hypercholesterolemia. These cholesterol-lowering effects of berberine are especially beneficial as cholesterol in the body can result in heart disease or stroke, which are quite fatal outcomes if not treated appropriately and in a timely fashion.

A study performed on animal models showed that excess cholesterol in the body was moved to the liver by berberine so that it can be excreted and cleared out of the system. The animal models showed significantly low triglycerides and LDL levels after being supplemented with Berberine.

Moreover, researchers have found that berberine is able to inhibit an enzyme, PCSK9, which plays an important role in preventing the clearance of LDL from the blood. This effect of berberine also results in low levels of the compound in the bloodstream, which consequently reduces cholesterol levels in the body.

All of these effects of berberine are found to be the same, and equally potent, as many anti-cholesterol medications. This has led to the researchers calling for use of the compound as a treatment for high cholesterol.

 

Cardioprotective properties

A single study performed on high-risk populations for the development of heart failure found that berberine supplementation reduced the risk factors of heart failure significantly. In patients with heart failure, the compound helped alleviate symptoms significantly.

The cardioprotective effects of berberine are especially pronounced in the effects of the compound against hypertension. In a study performed on animal models, it was found that berberine had an effect on the onset of the hypertensive disorder, as it showed a marked delay. And when the onset began, animal models showed symptoms with less severity than those not taking berberine supplements.

The uses of the compound in regards to the treatment of hypertension are currently being debated as many researchers believe the compound has potential as an anti-hypertensive drug since the potency of both agents is very similar.

 

Potent weight loss agent

Berberine powder is believed to reduce fat cells in the body by reducing gat cell growth, down to the molecular levels. Even though more research is required on the subject, multiple different studies show that berberine plays an important role in fat regulating hormones such as adiponectin and leptin, which allows the compound to have its weight loss properties.

A study performed on patients with high BMIs and metabolic syndrome found that berberine supplementation for three months helped study participants 4 points on the BMI scale, on average. Moreover, these participants showed a significant decrease in their belly fat content along with the decreased risk of obesity related comorbidities.

In a similar study, the effects of the compound were studied and it was found that berberine increased the production of brown adipose tissue in the body. This particular year of tissue helps convert fat into body heat, resulting in the consumption of fat stores in the body and potentially, the treatment of obesity.

 

Anti-cancer properties

There have been quite a few kinds of research promoting the use of berberine due to its anti-cancer properties. A study performed on cancer cells and berberine powder supplementation found that the compound has a marked effect on cancer cell progression and growth, as in that it inhibits it. Another study performed on the matter found that berberine has an inhibitory effect on cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer.

 

PCOS treatment

Polycystic ovarian syndrome arises from insulin resistance and is a metabolic disorder, which is why berberine is believed to be beneficial in the treatment of the disorder. As it often results in infertility, timely and appropriate treatment is absolutely necessary. Several researchers have found berberine to help manage issues of obesity, insulin resistance, and high cholesterol levels which are not only important in the pathogenesis but also in the treatment of PCOS.

 

Uses of Berberine Powder

Berberine powder is used as a supplement, mainly for the purpose of management of diabetes and associated comorbidities. It is a health booster with various benefits, as mentioned above, and the supplements produced from the compound manufactured at our berberine hydrochloride powder manufacturers, are widely consumed by the population for those benefits.

It is also used as a dye for staining of cell preparation in the laboratories, although this use of the compound is not nearly as popular as its use as a supplement.

 

Dosage of Berberine Powder

The berberine hydrochloride powder can be safely consumed daily, at an average dose of 500mg, three times a day which adds up to 1500mg per day. The general dosage for a day ranges between 900 mg to 1500 mg.

 

Side Effects of Berberine Powder

Berberine powder is a relatively safe compound that can be consumed as far as it is not interacting with any current medications of the consumer. Most side effects of the compound are self-limiting and will resolve spontaneously without any medical interventions. However, the slight side effects that do occur are related to the gastrointestinal tract, and often present as:

  • Cramping
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea

 

References

  1. Yin, J., Xing, H., & Ye, J. (2008). Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 57(5), 712–717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2008.01.013
  2. Zheng Li, Ya-Na Geng, Jian-Dong Jiang, Wei-Jia Kong, “Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Berberine in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus”, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 289264, 12 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/289264
  3. Ortiz, L. M., Lombardi, P., Tillhon, M., & Scovassi, A. I. (2014). Berberine, an epiphany against cancer. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 19(8), 12349–12367. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules190812349
  4. Lou, T., Zhang, Z., Xi, Z., Liu, K., Li, L., Liu, B., & Huang, F. (2011). Berberine inhibits inflammatory response and ameliorates insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Inflammation, 34(6), 659–667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-010-9276-2
  5. Cernáková, M., & Kostálová, D. (2002). Antimicrobial activity of berberine–a constituent of Mahonia aquifolium. Folia microbiologica, 47(4), 375–378. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02818693
  6. Dong, H., Zhao, Y., Zhao, L., & Lu, F. (2013). The effects of berberine on blood lipids: a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Planta medica, 79(6), 437–446. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1328321

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