Procyanidin powder inlcude Procyanidin B2 and Procyanidin C1, is a polyphenol that occurs naturally in various plants, flowers, nuts, and barks. Procyanidin possesses antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antiallergy properties and protective properties against chronic diseases and metabolic disorders. Additionally, extensive research on the health effects, genotoxicity, metabolism, bioavailability, and toxicology is required before recommending a dietary supplement.
Procyanidin B2 Powder Chemical Base Information
|Solubility||Procyanidin B2 is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The solubility of procyanidin B2 in these solvents is approximately 30 mg/ml.|
|Storage Condition||stored in sealed containers out of heat, light and humidity.|
Procyanidin C1 Powder Chemical Base Information
|Solubility||Procyanidin C1 is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol,DMSO and dimethyl formamide, which should be purged with an inert gas. The solubility of procyanidin C1 in these solvents is approximately 30mg/ml|
|Storage Condition||stored in sealed containers out of heat, light and humidity.|
Procyanidin Powder General Description
Procyanidins are members of the proanthocyanidin (or condensed tannins) class of flavonoids. They are oligomeric compounds, formed from catechin and epicatechin molecules. They yield cyanidin when depolymerized under oxidative conditions.
Procyanidin B2 powder is a proanthocyanidin consisting of two molecules of (-)-epicatechin joined by a bond between positions 4 and 8′ in a beta-configuration. Procyanidin B2 can be found in Cinchona pubescens (Chinchona, in the rind, bark and cortex), in Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon, in the rind, bark and cortex), in Crataegus monogyna (Common hawthorn, in the flower and blossom), in Uncaria guianensis (Cat’s claw, in the root), in Vitis vinifera (Common grape vine, in the leaf), in Litchi chinensis (litchi, in the pericarp), in the apple, in Ecdysanthera utilis and in red wine. It has a role as a metabolite and an antioxidant. It is a hydroxyflavan, a proanthocyanidin, a biflavonoid and a polyphenol. It derives from a (-)-epicatechin.
Procyanidin C1 powder is a proanthocyanidin consisting of three (-)-epicatechin units joined by two successive (4beta->8)-linkages. It has a role as a metabolite, an anti-inflammatory agent, an antioxidant, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, an EC 18.104.22.168 (xanthine oxidase) inhibitor and an EC 22.214.171.124 (alpha-glucosidase) inhibitor. It is a hydroxyflavan, a proanthocyanidin and a polyphenol. It derives from a (-)-epicatechin.
Procyanidin Powder History
Procyanidins powder, including the lesser bioactive / bioavailable polymers (4 or more catechines), represent a group of condensed flavan-3-ols that can be found in many plants, most notably apples, maritime pine bark, cinnamon, aronia fruit, cocoa beans, grape seed, grape skin,and red wines of Vitis vinifera (the common grape). However, bilberry, cranberry, black currant, green tea, black tea, and other plants also contain these flavonoids.Procyanidins can also be isolated from Quercus petraea and Q. robur heartwood (wine barrel oaks).Açaí oil, obtained from the fruit of the açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea), is rich in numerous procyanidin oligomers.
Apples contain on average per serving about eight times the amount of procyanidin found in wine, with some of the highest amounts found in the Red Delicious and Granny Smith varieties.
The seed testas of field beans (Vicia faba) contain procyanidins that affect the digestibility in piglets and could have an inhibitory activity on enzymes. Cistus salviifolius also contains oligomeric procyanidins.
Procyanidin Powder Mechanism Of Action
Proanthocyanidins ease cardiovascular diseases via vessel relaxation and the inhibition LDL oxidation . Proanthocyanidins can inhibit the binding of oxidized LDL to the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), which is involved in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis .
The main mechanism of action of procyanidin B2 is implied by its intensive growth-promoting action on hair epithelial cells (Takahashi et al., 1999a). The intensive anti-oxidative activity of procyanidin B-2 may be a significant contributor to its effects. The relation between male pattern baldness and inflammation has been pointed out by several researchers. It has been reported that lymphocytic inflammation was observed around hair follicles biopsied from patients showing male pattern baldness (Sueki et aI., 1999; Jaworsky et aI., 1992). Young et a1. (1991) also reported that the ratio of subjects showing inflammation of the scalp was 100 % in subjects with male pattern baldness, whereas the ratio was 66 % in non-balding subjects. Procyanidins are known to show the effect of decreasing inflammation due to their anti-oxidative properties (Haslam, 1996) and by their protease inhibiting action (Tixier et al., 1984). Therefore, it is supposed that the suppression of inflammation mediated by procyanidin B-2 returns the scalp to a healthy condition, consequently leading to a cure for baldness.
Procyanidin Powder Application
Procyanidin has very potent antioxidant activity, which functions as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the environment. Proanthocyanidins have 20 times the antioxidant capacity of vitamin C and 50 times the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E . Aside from that, procyandin’s
antioxidant activity and scavenging capacity are proportional to its size and composition. Its antioxidant function is frequently associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Anticancer and Antitumor Activity
A redox imbalance in the body can cause disease to form. It is frequently associated with an increase or accumulation of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can cause DNA mutations and epigenetic changes, as well as alter chromatin proteins. These conditions will cause disruptions in the normal functions of the cells and changes in the signaling pathways.
Cancer cells, in general, have an accelerated metabolism. A high level of ROS is needed to maintain their metabolic processes, progression, and proliferation. The presence of a high level of ROS will trigger and exasperate their metabolism, as well as vigorously assault and damage their DNA, lipids, and proteins .
Procyanidins were discovered to have a chemopreventive effect on high-grade prostate cancer . This study supported the findings from the discovery that a combination of procyanidin and its active constituent could target cancer stem cells in prostate cancer.
Their findings revealed that procyanidin and its constituents significantly reduced the constitutive (Notch1 ligand)-induced activated Notch1 pathway targeting prostate cancer growth and tumor relapse.
Procyanidins’ anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated using various models. For example, ultraviolet radiation induces erythema, edema, and hyperplastic epithelial responses, all of which play important roles in forming skin tumors. The research found that
dietary intake of procyanidins influences cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme expression, inhibits UV radiation-induced edema, erythema, infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse skin.
Immunosuppressive Properties and Anti-Allergy
Procyanidins have also been shown in numerous studies to have immunosuppressive and antiallergy properties. Various disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, uremia, Behcet’s disease, and irritable bowel disease, may also involve molecules and pathways
targeted by procyanidins. Caspases, PERK/NRF2, NADPH oxidase, and JNK/MAPK signaling cascades are part of the pathway . As a result, the impact of procyanidins on disease prevention is the most plausible in ameliorating various immune disorders. Despite
many in vitro and cell-based evidence of immunomodulatory effects, animal model studies are limited; therefore clinical evidence is urgently required before granting credible dietary or supplement recommendations and complementary treatments based on procyanidins.
Improves Reproductive Parameters and Fertility
It has been demonstrated that procyanidins affect reproductive parameters, development, and fetal health. However, additional research is urgently needed to understand their potential benefits for health, physiology, mechanisms, and clinical utility concerning reproduction and fertility.
Other Procyanidin powder benefits include:
Protective Roles Against Chronic Diseases and Metabolic Disorders
Antibacterial Effects of Procyanidins
Antivirus Properties of Procyanidins
Research is being done to look at the health benefits of these compounds. It’s known that a diet with a lot of vegetables and fruits reduces the risk for many types of cancer. It also lowers the risk of other age-related problems.
Procyanidin B2 hair growth benefits
Acts as a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, this molecules have been proved to stimulate (anagen phase) and to promote hair epithelial cell growth as (A.KAMIMURA AND T.TAKAHASHI) demonstrated back in 2001. The level of efficacy of 1 % procyanidin B-2 is concluded to compare favorably with minoxidil and finasteride therapy. In the procyanidin B-2 group, the increase in number of total hairs in the designated area (0.5 em square = 0.25 cml ) after the e-month trial was 6.68 ± 5.5 3 (mean ± SD)/0.25 cm2 , whereas in the placebo control group, the increase in number of total hair s was 0.0 8 ± 4.56 (mean ± SD)/0.25 cm2 (Table 2). It is calculated th at the increased number of total hairs in the designated area of procyanidin B-2 group subjects after the 6-month trial was significantly greater than that of the placebo control group subjects.
Procyanidin C1 anti aging benefits
Research found procyanidin C1 (PCC1), a polyphenolic component, plays a critical role in mediating the antiaging effects of GSE. PCC1 blocks the SASP expression when used at low concentrations. Importantly, it selectively kills senescent cells upon application at higher concentrations, mainly by enhancing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbing mitochondrial membrane potential, processes accompanied by upregulation of Bcl-2 family pro-apoptotic factors Puma and Noxa in senescent cells. PCC1 depletes senescent cells in treatment-damaged tumor microenvironment (TME) and enhances therapeutic efficacy when combined with chemotherapy in preclinical assays. Intermittent administration of PCC1 to both senescent cell-implanted mice and naturally aged animals alleviated physical dysfunction and prolonged post-treatment survival, thus providing substantial benefits in late life stage. Together, our study identifies PCC1 as a distinct natural senolytic agent, which may be exploited to delay aging and control age-related pathologies in future medicine.
Procyanidin Powder More research
Food sources of proanthocyanidins include:
Leaves of the bilberry bush
Procyanidin Powder Dosage
There is no set dose for proanthocyanidins.
People who are pregnant or breastfeeding should talk to their healthcare providers before taking any supplements.
Procyanidin Powder Reference
- Vernhet, A.; Dubascoux, S. P.; Cabane, B.; Fulcrand, H. L. N.; Dubreucq, E.; Poncet-Legrand, C. L. (2011). “Characterization of oxidized tannins: Comparison of depolymerization methods, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and small-angle X-ray scattering”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 401 (5): 1559–1569.
- Jorgensen, Emily M.; Marin, Anna B.; Kennedy, James A. (2004). “Analysis of the Oxidative Degradation of Proanthocyanidins under Basic Conditions”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (8): 2292–2296. doi:10.1021/jf035311i. PMID 15080635.
- Griffiths, D. W. (1981). “The polyphenolic content and enzyme inhibitory activity of testas from bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum spp.) varieties”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 32 (8): 797–804. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740320808.
- Thompson R. S., Jacques D., Haslam E. and Tanner R. J. N. (1972) Plant proanthocyanidins. Part I. Introduction; the isolation, structure and distribution in nature of plant procyanidins. Journal of the Chemical Society. Perkin Transactions 1, Organic and Bio-organic Chemistry , 1387±1399.