Sesamin Powder 607-80-7
Sesamin is a naturally occurring lignan that is present in sesame seed and pure sesame oil. Besides being a strong antioxidant, sesamin powder has shown great promiseas a lipid oxidizer as well as to support anti-inflammatory action. Sesamin being a magic component in sesame seeds represents strong antioxidation in life body. Sesamin helps protect blood vessels by scavenging free radicals and ensuring efficient nutrient and oxygen deliver for healthy brain function.
Manufacture: Batch Production
Package: 1KG/bag, 25KG/drum
2.Sesamin powder 607-80-7 General Description
3.Sesamin powder 607-80-7 History
5.What are the benefits of taking sesamin?
6.Sesamin powder 607-80-7 More research
7.How much Sesamin should I take? Sesamin dosage
8.What are the side effects of Sesamin?
9.What is sesamin extract from?
10.Does sesame oil contain sesamin?
11.When should I take Sesamin supplement?
12.How much sesamin should I take to burn fat?
13.Seamin Vs Seame seeds: Is sesamin in sesame seeds?
16.What do sesame seeds contain?
17.Sesamin and Sesame seeds: How much sesame seeds should I eat daily?
18.What happens when you eat too many sesame seeds?
19.What are the side effects of sesame seeds?Can sesame seeds cause problems?
20.Will sesame seeds cause weight gain?
21.What is Alpha-lipoic Acid (ALA)
22.What foods are high in alpha-lipoic acid(ALA)?
23.What is alpha-lipoic acid good for?
24.Alpha-lipoic acid for weight loss
25.What is the best time of day to take alpha-lipoic acid? Alpha-lipoic acid(ALA) dosage?
26.Who should not take alpha-lipoic acid(ALA)?
27.What is Oleoylethanolamide (OEA)?
28.How does Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) work? How does OEA control appetide?
29.Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and weight loss
30.Where to buy weight loss powder?
1. What is Sesamin?
Sesamin is the most prominent lignan compound found in sesame seeds, one of the two highest sources of lignans in the human diet (the other being flax). Sesamin is catered to be a nutritional supplement that confers antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects (if touting its health properties) or possibly being an estrogen receptor modulator and fat burner (if targeting atheltes or persons wishing to lose weight).
2. Sesamin powder 607-80-7 General Description
Sesamin powder is the raw material of Sesamin, it’s CAS number is 607-80-7, sesamin powder is the main ingredient to use to make sesamin supplement.
Sesamin is a white powder soluble in organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol and DMSO. Sesamin powder also has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is mainly used in supplements for regulating blood fat and blood pressure and improving liver health. It can also be used in pharmaceuticals.
Sesamin inhibits the conversion of DGLA to arachidonic acid, and consequently decreases the formation of proinflammatory 2-series prostaglandins.Sesamin can decrease cholesterol levels, while increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL aka “good cholesterol”) levels,sesamin can be an anti-inflammatory skin problem: sesamin can inhibit the growth of SC (skin cancer) cell. It can protect skin from UV rays.
Sesamin powder CAS 607-80-7 base information:
|Synonyms||Fagarol; Fsesamin; SezaMin; SESAMIN; d-Sesamin; NSC 36403; L-Sesamin; SesameP.E.;SESAMIN(P); Sesamin|
|Melting Point||121.0 to 125.0 °C|
|Appearance||Light Yellow or White Fine Powder|
|Half Life||less than 6 hours|
|Solubility||DMSO: 10 mg/mL|
|Application||Sesamin is a non-competitive inhibitor of Δ5-desaturase|
|Sesamin powder picture|
3. Sesamin powder 607-80-7 History
Sesamin powder is a lignan isolated from the bark of Fagara plants and from sesame oil. It has been used as a dietary fat-reduction supplement, although no controlled studies on this application have been performed. Its major metabolite is enterolactone, which has an elimination half life of less than 6 hours. Sesamin and sesamolin are minor components of sesame oil, on average comprising only 0.14% of the oil by mass.
4. How does Sesamin work?
Sesamin has a few mechanisms, and when looking at it holistically it can be summed up as a fatty acid metabolism modifier. It appears to inhibit an enzyme known as delta-5-desaturase (Δ5-desaturase) which is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid metabolism; inhibiting this enzyme results in lower levels of both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, one of the two fish oil fatty acids) as well as arachidonic acid, and this mechanism appears to be relevant following oral ingestion. The other main mechanism is inhibiting a process known as Tocopherol-ω-hydroxylation, which is the rate limiting step in the metabolism of Vitamin E; by inhibiting this enzyme, sesamin causes a relative increase of vitamin E in the body but particularly those of the gamma subset (γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol) and this mechanism has also been confirmed to be active following oral ingestion.
There are some other mechanisms in place which seem promising (protection against Parkinson’s Disease as well as promotion of bone mass) but most of the mechanisms including estrogen receptor modulation, fat burning from the liver, and activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE) have not been confirmed in humans and have their reasons to suspect that they do not occur; this includes either a concentration that is too high to matter for oral supplementation, or in the case of fat burning it being a process that seems to be exclusive to rats.
In the end, sesamin serves a pretty interesting role as having the potential to augment γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol metabolism by preventing their degradation; increasing the levels of these vitamin E vitamers has a lot of therapeutic benefits in and of itself, and since they are quite expensive to purchase as supplements then sesamin could be a cheap workaround or something used to ‘cut’ the vitamin E.
Summary: Sesamin powder 607-80-7 Mechanism Of Action
1) Sesamin has effect on improving the lipid profile.
2) It has function of normalizing the blood pressure.
3) It can be used for loss weight.
4) It can increase ketone production.
5) It also has function of anti-inflammatory.Sesamin has effect on antiviral, fungicides, antioxidants, insecticide synergist.
6) It can also be used to the treatment of bronchitis.
7) It has the function of inhibition the influenza virus, Sendai virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
5. What are the benefits of taking sesamin?
With the increasing application of sesamin powder,people may ask “What is sesamin good for?” “What is Sesamin use for?” Here we summary the below 6 sesamin benefits:
1) Sesamin effects on hypertension
Several in vitro and in vivo studies illustrate the anti-hypertensive effects of sesamin.
The mechanism of action is related to the sesamin-induced inhibition of the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase isoforms NOX2 and NOX4, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and an increase in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). The anti-hypertensive effects of sesamin is also noted in a study using a two kidney, one clip renovascular hypertensive rat model. Results illustrate a decrease in systolic blood pressure after 4 weeks of sesamin administration
Beside use supplement, eating a healthy diet with less salt, being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, and limiting the amount of alcohol intake are some lifestyle changes that can help control high blood pressure.
2) Sesamin effects on atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is primarily driven by the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and lipoprotein particles, followed by active inflammatory processes in particular areas of disturbed non laminar flow at branch points in arteries. The most common risk factors are diets high in saturated fats, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, age, male gender, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle.
Studies show that the introduction of sesamin in diet may decrease the risk of developing atherosclerotic lesions.
3) Sesamin effects on thrombosis
Atherosclerotic lesion rupture is a primary trigger for the development of arterial thrombosis (Mackman, 2008). Arterial thrombosis mainly occurs due to platelet aggregation. When an atherosclerotic lesion ruptures, platelets are recruited to the area through the interaction of platelet cell surface receptors with collagen and von Willebrand factor.
The effects of sesamin on thrombogenesis have been examined, primarily due to its antioxidant properties. The studies show that administration of sesamin alone or in combination with vitamin E seems to induce anti-thrombotic effects. The anti-thrombotic effects of sesamin are not extensively investigated. However, the reported findings seem to point to the role of sesamin in decreasing the risk of thrombus formation.
4) Sesamin effects on diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prominent causes of death globally, with a mortality rate of about 1.6 million individuals worldwide, and is considered the third highest risk factor for global premature mortality due to hyperglycaemia and hyperglycaemic-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
Sesamin has been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, its effect has been investigated on diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. Treatment of spontaneously diabetic mice (KK-Ay) with sesamin significantly decreases fasting plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid, MDA content, and glycosylated plasma proteins. Furthermore, it improves the insulin-binding capacity to liver crude plasma membrane, thus ameliorating insulin resistance.
5) Sesamin effects on obesity
According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2017–2018, 42.4% of the population of the United States was obese,this is mostly due to a sedentary lifestyle, and the consumption of high-fat foods.Sesame seed and its oil as well as sesamin posses antioxidative properties. Therefore, their effects on obesity have been studied.
Studies show that sesamin not only increases lipolytic enzyme activity, but also decreases the activity of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), by down-regulating the gene expression of sterol regulatory element bing protein-1. Sesamin also acts as an antagonist to liver X receptor (LXRα) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) ameliorating drug induced hepatic lipogenesis and potentially helping in the treatment of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) . It inhibits hepatic lipogenesis partially through the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of SREBP-1c expression
There are numerous benefits to consuming sesamin while dieting. It has been proven to increase the body’s ability to burn fat while decreasing the body’s fat storage capacity. Additionally, it helps to preserve lean muscle mass. This is particularly beneficial when dieting, as a restricted diet may break down muscle mass for use as fuel in the body.
6) Sesamin effects on anti-inflammatory
It is well known that inflammation is a major biological process involved in the development of CVD and its risk factors. Several studies have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory role of sesamin in various inflammatory conditions.
Summary: the anti-hypertensive, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity properties of sesamin can be attributed, at least in part, to its anti-inflammatory effects and its ability to regulate the inflammatory status.
6. Sesamin powder 607-80-7 More research
Health Benefits of sesamin powder.
1) Black sesame seeds extract powder can accelerate the body’s metabolic function.
2) Black sesame seeds extract powder are rich in iron and vitamin E ,which play an important role in prevention of anemia, activation of brain cells and elimination of the vascular cholesterol.
3) It contains unsaturated fatty acids, so it can promote longevity.
4) Black sesame seed extract powder is widely used in food and healthcare industry.
7. How much Sesamin should I take? Sesamin dosage
There are limited human studies on sesamin, but it appears that oral ingestion of around 100-150mg of sesamin is sufficient to raise bodily sesamin stores to the level where it can preserve Vitamin E in the body; this indirect antioxidative effect may be the most practical reason to supplement sesamin.
If using sesame seeds to get your sesamin from, human studies have used 50-75g of sesame seeds with some success and rat studies tend to use 100-fold the oral dose of sesame seeds relative to sesamin (which would make the aforemented dose of 100-150mg as minimum being 10-15g of sesame seeds)
8. What are the side effects of Sesamin?
The benefits of sesamin may be reaped through the ingestion of sesame oil and other products made from sesame seeds. The compound is found in both black sesame seeds and white sesame seeds. It may additionally be taken in pill form as a dietary supplement.
While there are some mild contradictions regarding its benefits and advantages, very few side effects or negative effects of sesamin have been noted in scientific studies. One of the only supposed disadvantages is that a fairly high amount may be required to be consumed in order to reap some of its health benefits. Allergic reactions to the compound have also been reported, but are considered rare.
Based on the above information, we have a comprehensive understanding of sesamin. But you may also want to know more about sesamin, here are some frequently asked questions about sesamin:
9. What is sesamin extract from?
Sesamin is a health ingredient extracted from sesame, which only comprises less than 1% of sesame seed. Sesamin appears to inhibit vitamin E metabolism, which causes a relative increase in circulating levels of γ-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol; it shows most promise in augmenting the efficacy of vitamin E supplements.
10. Does sesame oil contain sesamin?
Yes, Sesame oil contains small amounts of sesamol as well as ∼0.3% sesamolin, a glycoside of sesamol from which it can be obtained by hydrolysis. Additionally, there is 0.5–1.0% sesamin.
Other FAQ about Sesamin powder you are interested in:
11. When should I take Sesamin supplement?
The main ingredient of Sesamin supplement is sesamin bulk powder, sesamin supplement is best thought of as a health food. In other words, there is no need to take it at a certain type of the day like a medicine. What is most important is to take it consistently! So please feel free to find the right timing that fits your lifestyle.
12. How much sesamin should I take to burn fat?
Sesamin maybe is one of the burning ingredients you haven’t heard of,hitting bodyfat from both sides of the equation with sesamin can result in faster fat loss. Dose: Take 500-1,000 mg of sesamin 2-3 times a day with food.
13. Seamin Vs Seame seeds: Is sesamin in sesame seeds?
Yes, Sesame seeds are rich in phytochemicals called lignans, which are methylene dioxyphenyl compounds. Many of the medicinal properties of raw sesame oil are due to presence of 0.5–1.1 % sesamin, 0.2–0.6 % sesamolin and trace amounts of sesamol.
14. What are sesame lignans?
Sesame seeds are one of the two best food sources of lignans. Lignans are a category of polyphenols, and like other polyphenols are broadly described as antioxidants. Lignans are metabolized by the gut microflora. During this process, both the lignans and gut microflora are changed. As a general rule of thumb, lignans shape the populations of gut microbiota, and as a result, may influence the gut-brain axis. Sesame seeds are also a source for tocopherols and tocotrienols, the class of compounds with vitamin E activity. Sesame lignans, both individually and in combination, influence a range of biological functions. While sesame seeds have about 16 different lignans, the one that has received the most research is sesamin. In animal studies, sesamin has been neuroprotective and supports molecules like BDNF, which is involved in nervous system repair and growth. It has also countered changes in behavior caused by stress, positively influenced both cardiovascular and liver health, and supported healthy aging functions. Some of these findings have been replicated in human studies.
15. What are plant lignans?
Plant lignans are plant-derived diphenolic compounds that belong to the group of phytoestrogens that are structurally similar to 17-estradiol. After ingestion, plant lignans are metabolized to the enterolignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL) by colonic bacteria before they are absorbed.
16. What do sesame seeds contain?
Sesame seed is high in protein, vitamin B1, dietary fiber as well as an excellent source of phosphorous, iron, magnesium calcium, manganese, copper and zinc. In addition to these important nutrients, sesame seeds contain two unique substances, sesamin and sesamolin.
17. Sesamin and Sesame seeds: How much sesame seeds should I eat daily?
Eat 1 tablespoon raw or toasted Sesame seeds a day. Or, you can also add Sesame seeds to salads as per your taste.
18. What happens when you eat too many sesame seeds?
If sesame seeds are not consumed in the limit, they might cause blood glucose levels to drop below normal. Excessive consumption of sesame seeds can drop blood pressure to dangerously low levels. Fibre from sesame seeds can form a layer over the appendix, causing bloating and pain.
19. What are the side effects of sesame seeds?Can sesame seeds cause problems?
One of the most important aspects of a healthy diet is the moderation of food items consumed, and sesame seeds are no exception. Though the benefits of sesame seeds are many, its side effects must also be considered for those planning to make this a regular part of their diet.
1). Lower Blood Sugar Level
2). Lower Blood Pressure Level
3). May Cause Appendicitis
5). Unhealthy Weight Gain
Sesame seeds must be taken with precautions, and it is advised that people suffering from gout must avoid it completely, as sesame seeds contain a natural compound called oxalates, which aids in aggravating the symptoms of gout.
Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder in which copper gets accumulated in various body organs, which might sometimes become fatal. Thus, due to the high copper content of sesame seeds, it is advised to completely avoid eating them if you are suffering from Wilson’s disease.
20. Will sesame seeds cause weight gain?
Sesame seeds or til are known to be an excellent source of protein, which helps increase your metabolic rate and curbs hunger, thereby avoiding excessive calorie consumption and aiding weight loss. In fact, fibre-rich foods can help you lose fat but maintain muscles.
Summary: Beside Sesamin and Sesame, there are some other popular ingredients good for weight loss you may haven’t heard about, Alpha-lipoic Acid (ALA) ,oleoylethanolamide(OEA), let’s continue to see what are they.
21. What is Alpha-lipoic Acid (ALA)
Alpha-lipoic acid or ALA is a naturally occurring compound that’s made in the body. It serves vital functions at the cellular level, such as energy production. As long as you’re healthy, the body can produce all the ALA it needs for these purposes. Despite that fact, there has been a lot of recent interest in using ALA supplements. Advocates of ALA make claims that range from beneficial effects for treating conditions such as diabetes and HIV to enhancing weight loss.
Alpha-lipoic acid(ALA) powder base information
|Name||Alpha-lipoic Acid powder|
|Chemical name||(+/-)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-pentanoic Acid; (+/-)-1,2-Dithiolane-3-valeric Acid; (+/-)-Alpha-lipoic Acid/Thioctic acid; (RS)-α-Lipoic Acid|
|Synonyms||DL-Alpha-lipoic Acid/Thioctic acid; Liposan; Lipothion; NSC 628502; NSC 90788; Protogen A; Thioctsan;Tioctacid;|
|Molecular Weight||206.318 g/mol|
|Melting Point||60-62 °C|
|Appearance||Light Yellow to Yellow|
|Half Life||30 minutes to 1 hour|
|Solubility||Soluble in Chloroform (Slightly), DMSO (Slightly), Methanol (Slightly)|
|Storage Condition||Dry, dark and at 0 – 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).|
|Application||A fat-metabolism stimulator.|
22. What foods are high in alpha-lipoic acid(ALA)?
Alpha-lipoic acid(ALA) is an antioxidant that is made naturally in the body and also found in foods. It is used to break down carbohydrates and to make energy.
Alpha-lipoic acid(ALA) can be eaten in foods, such as red meat, carrots, beets, spinach, broccoli, and potatoes. It is also available in supplements. Because alpha-lipoic acid seems to work like an antioxidant, it might provide protection to the brain and also be helpful in certain liver diseases.
23. What is alpha-lipoic acid good for?
Alpha-lipoic acid has strong antioxidant properties, which may reduce inflammation and skin aging, promote healthy nerve function, lower heart disease risk factors, and slow the progression of memory loss disorders.
24. Alpha-lipoic acid for weight loss
Research has shown that alpha-lipoic acid may affect weight loss in several ways.
Animal studies indicate that it can reduce the activity of the enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is located in your brain’s hypothalamus.
When AMPK is more active, it may increase feelings of hunger.
On the other hand, suppressing AMPK activity may increase the number of calories your body burns at rest. Thus, animals who took alpha-lipoic acid burned more calories.
However, human studies show that alpha-lipoic acid only slightly impacts weight loss.
An analysis of 12 studies discovered that people who took an alpha-lipoic acid supplement lost an average of 1.52 pounds (0.69 kg) more than those taking a placebo over an average of 14 weeks.
In the same analysis, alpha-lipoic acid did not significantly affect waist circumference.
Another analysis of 12 studies found that people who took alpha-lipoic acid lost an average of 2.8 pounds (1.27 kg) more than those taking a placebo over an average of 23 weeks.
In short, it seems that alpha-lipoic acid has just a slight effect on weight loss in humans.
25. What is the best time of day to take alpha-lipoic acid? Alpha-lipoic acid(ALA) dosage?
The best time to take alpha lipoic acid is on an empty stomach, preferably earlier in the day. This gives the body a chance to work the antioxidant through your system when it is most effective. The average dose of Alpha-lipoic acid is 300 to 600 mg per day, although as much as 1,200 mg per day were used in some clinical studies.
26. Who should not take alpha-lipoic acid(ALA)?
Do not take alpha-lipoic acid without medical advice if you are using any of the following medications: insulin or oral diabetes medicine; medicines to treat underactive thyroid, such as levothyroxine (Synthroid) and others; or. cancer medicines (chemotherapy).
27. What is Oleoylethanolamide (OEA)?
Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid that’s synthesized naturally by the intestines. The presence of OEA is higher during the day when the body is fully saturated with food and lower at nighttime during periods of starvation.
The effects of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were first studied because it shares similarities with another chemical, a cannabinoid known as anandamide. Cannabinoids are related to, you guessed it, the plant Cannabis, and anandamides present in the plant (and marijuana) can increase a person’s desire to snack by triggering a feeding response. Although Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has a chemical structure that is similar to anandamide, its effects on eating and weight management are different.
Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) powder base information
|Synonyms||N-Oleoylethanolamine, N-(Hydroxyethyl)oleamide, N-(cis-9-Octadecenoyl)ethanolamine, OEA|
|Melting Point||59–60 °C (138–140 °F; 332–333 K)|
|Solubility||H2O : < 0.1 mg/mL (insoluble); DMSO : 20.83 mg/mL (63.99 mM; Need ultrasonic|
|Application||N-Oleoylethanolamine has been used to study its effects on glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1RA-mediated anorectic signaling and weight loss.|
28. How does Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) work? How does OEA control appetide?
OEA works to activate something called PPAR and simultaneously ramps up fat-burning and decreases fat storage. When you eat, Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) levels increase and your appetite decreases when the sensory nerves that link to your brain tell it that you’re full. There have been many studies proving this effect.
29. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and weight loss
Obesity is a pandemic, gateway disease that has thrived in modern, sedentary, high calorie-eating societies. Left unchecked, obesity and obesity-related diseases will continue to plague future generations with heavy burdens on economies, healthcare systems, and the quality of life of billions. There is a significant need to elucidate basic physiological mechanisms and therapies that address this global health care crisis. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endocannabinoid-like lipid that induces hypophagia and reduces fat mass in rodents. For over a decade, PPAR-α has been the most widely accepted mediator of the hypophagic action of OEA via signaling to homeostatic brain centers. Recent evidence suggests that OEA may also reduce food intake via effects on dopamine and endocannabinoid signaling within hedonic brain centers. Limited study of OEA supplementation in humans has provided some encouraging insight into OEA-based weight loss therapy, but more thorough, controlled investigations are needed. As a potential link between homeostatic and hedonic regulation of food intake, Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a prime starting point for the development of more effective obesity therapies.
30. Where to buy weight loss powder?
Wisepowder as a direct manufacturer, offer different kinds raw powder include: Antiaging,nootropics,supplement, appetide control…
Wisepowder is a well-known and reputable company with over 20 years of experience in Chinese nutraceutical industry. And, at present, all the production of ingredients has a standard quality control management system which is in strictly accordance with GMP regulations. WISEPOWDER provides top quality products. And, one team we cooperated with locates in U.S. will provide related service for our clients around the world.
Wisepowder has set up a laboratory center equipped with imported advanced instruments from Germany, Japan and U.S. for analysis and synthesis of the content of active ingredients which ensure Wisepowder controlling all stages of the manufacturing process.
As the raw powder manufacturer of Sesamin,Alpha-lipoic Acid (ALA), oleoylethanolamide(OEA),provide the best quality ingredient for weight loss supplement/capsule/tablet use.
Sesamin powder 607-80-7 Reference
- Akimoto, K., et al., 1993. Protective effects of sesamin against liver damage caused by alcohol or carbon tetrachloride in rodents. Annals of nutrition & metabolism. 37(4): 218-24. PMID: 8215239
- Kamal-Eldin A; Moazzami A; Washi S (January 2011). “Sesame seed lignans: potent physiological modulators and possible ingredients in functional foods & nutraceuticals”. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric. 3 (1): 17–
- Peñalvo JL; Heinonen SM; Aura AM; Adlercreutz H (May 2005). “Dietary sesamin is converted to enterolactone in humans”. J. Nutr. 135 (5): 1056–1062.