Spermine Raw Material
Spermine is a spermidine-derived biogenic polyamine found as a polycation at all pH values. Found in various tissues and organisms, it often acts as an essential growth factor in some bacterial species. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Spermine raw material include spermine free base CAS 71-44-3 and spermine tetrahyddrochloride powder CAS 306-67-2.
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Spermine Chemical Base Information
|Spermine, spermine tetrahyddrochloride
|soluble in water (50 mg/ml), yielding a clear, colorless to light yellow solution.
|Store at 2-8 °C. Solutions of spermine free base are
readily oxidized. Solutions are most stable if prepared
in degassed water and stored in frozen aliquots, under
argon or nitrogen gas.
Spermine Raw Material 71-44-3 General Description
Spermine is an endogenous polyamine bearing multiple amino groups. It has been found to play important roles in cellular metabolism in all eukaryotic cells. It also can condense DNA in sperm due to its positive charge in the physiological condition. Because spermine is an endogenous molecule widely present in the biological environment, it is expected that spermine will have better biocompatibility then other synthetic cationic molecules.
Spermine raw material include spermine free base CAS 71-44-3 and spermine tetrahyddrochloride powder CAS 306-67-2. Spermine free base is liquid form, spermine tetrahyddrochloride is raw powder form.
Spermine Raw Material 71-44-3 History
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first described crystals of spermine phosphate in human semen in 1678. The name spermin was first used by the German chemists Ladenburg and Abel in 1888, and the correct structure of spermine was not finally established until 1926, simultaneously in England (by Dudley, Rosenheim, and Starling) and Germany (by Wrede et al.).Spermine is the chemical primarily responsible for the characteristic odor of semen.
Spermine Raw Material 71-44-3 Mechanism Of Action
Spermine is derived from spermidine by spermine synthase. Spermine is a polyamine, a small organic cations that is absolutely required for eukaryotic cell growth. Spermine, is normally found in millimolar concentrations in the nucleus. Spermine functions directly as a free radical scavenger, and forms a variety of adducts that prevent oxidative damage to DNA. Oxidative damage to DNA by reactive oxygen species is a continual problem that cells must guard against to survive. Hence, spermine is a major natural intracellular compound capable of protecting DNA from free radical attack. Spermine is also implicated in the regulation of gene expression, the stabilization of chromatin, and the prevention of endonuclease-mediated DNA fragmentation.
Spermine Raw Material 71-44-3 Application
Spermine is an endogenous polyamine bearing multiple amino groups. It has been found to play important roles in cellular metabolism in all eukaryotic cells. It also can condense DNA in sperm due to its positive charge in the physiological condition.
Spermine is commonly used in molecular biology and biochemistry research. The polycationic character of spermine in solution allows for its use in the precipitation of DNA of >100 base pairs in length from low salt aqueous buffers, and for the isolation of DNA from pulse field gels.Spermine has also been utilized in chromosome isolation and in the aggregation of chromatin. It may be used as a
building block for the preparation of gene transfer agents.The complexation of spermine with DNA to form particles with diameter <100 nm has been studied. Spermine has been used in the crystallization of DNA.
Spermine Vs Spermidine
Spermine is not the same as spermidine. Spermine is formed through the addition of a aminopropyl group to spermidine by spermine synthase. Spermine is strongly basic in character, and in aqueous solution at physiological pH, all of its amino groups will be positively charged.
Good dietary sources of spermidine are aged cheese, mushrooms, soy products, legumes, corn, and whole grains. Spermidine is plentiful in a Mediterranean diet. For comparison: The spermidine content in human seminal plasma varies between approx. 15 and 50 mg/L (mean 31 mg/L).
What foods are high in spermidine?
Spermidine is found in fresh green pepper, wheat germ, cauliflower, broccoli, mushrooms, and a variety of cheeses. Even higher amounts are found in soybean products such as natto, shitake mushrooms, amaranth grain and durian.
Where is spermine found?
Spermine is a polyamine, a small organic cations that is absolutely required for eukaryotic cell growth. Spermine, is normally found in millimolar concentrations in the nucleus. Spermine functions directly as a free radical scavenger, and forms a variety of adducts that prevent oxidative damage to DNA.
Spermine Raw Material 71-44-3 Reference
- Dudley, H. W; Rosenheim, O; Starling, W. W (1926). “The Chemical Constitution of Spermine: Structure and Synthesis”. Biochemical Journal. 20 (5): 1082–1094. doi:10.1042/bj0201082. PMC 1251823. PMID 16743746.
- Xie, X., et al., Coiled-coil packing in spermineinduced tropomyosin crystals. A comparative study of three forms. J. Mol. Biol., 236(4), 1212-1226 (1994).
- Wrede, F (2009). “Ueber die aus dem menschlichen Sperma isolierte Base Spermin”. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 51: 24. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1136345
- Lewenhoeck, D. A (1677). “Observationes D. Anthonii Lewenhoeck, De Natis E Semine Genitali Animalculis”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 12 (133–142): 1040–1046. Bibcode:1677RSPT…12.1040A. doi:10.1098/rstl.1677.0068.