A Comprehensive Overview On Nootropic Supplements Galantamine Hydrobromide
1. What is Galantamine Hydrobromide?
Galantamine belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors which also include rivastigmine (Exelon), donezepil (Aricept) and tacrine (Cognex). It could better be described as an oral medication used as a combination therapy in the treatment of dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Galantamine Hydrobromide was first derived from the Galanthus nivalis in 1956 by a Bulgarian chemist D. Pascov together with his team. Studies on the Galantamine Hydrobromide uses in modern medicine date from 1950 when the Soviet Union was actively involved in them.
The active agent was then extracted, identified, and studies were done on it. The research done was concerning the Galantamine Hydrobromide acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting properties. Later in 1959, the first industrial process on this compound was carried out. In 2001, it got approved by the FDA.
2. How does Galantamine Hydrobromide work?
The Galantamine Hydrobromide mechanism of action involves the acetylcholinesterase activity which is involved in the destruction of acetylcholine.
Acetylcholine is a vital neurotransmitter situated in the brain and whose function is to aid in the communication between nerve cells. Once there are reduced levels of acetylcholine in the body, one risks from suffering from some of the Alzheimer’s disease symptoms.
Galantamine HBR works by blocking the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine. Subsequently, there is an increase in the concentration of acetylcholine in the brain hence improved thinking.
3. Galantamine Hydrobromide brand name
- Razadyne ER
4. What is Galantamine Hydrobromide used for?
With all the clinical trials done on this nootropic, it is evident that Galantamine Hydrobromide powder (1953-04-4) could help you in very many ways. Here are ways on how it could improve your health;
- It is an antioxidant
When the body suffers from oxidative stress, there could be more health issues coming up, e.g., diabetes, cancer, Down’s syndrome, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s disease. Luckily, Galantamine Hydrobromide acts as an antioxidant by protecting the cells from oxidative cells.
It also protects the human brain from neuronal damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). It does this through the activation of NRF2 and by protecting the mitochondria.
- It offers protection against toxins
We always hear about air pollution and toxins in the drinks and food that we consume. Such contaminants affect the way our body function and could even lead to illnesses. As much as our body has some in-born protection, it is never enough. No wonder nature has gifted us with the Galantamine nootropic to give protection against toxic chemicals and elements.
In a study done on rats, Galantamine supplement showed that it could protect against the effects brought about by toxic poisoning caused by diisopropylfluorophosphate.
It also proved that it could filter out endotoxins from the rat’s blood by lowering the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as well as reducing the MPO activity.
- May help in the treatment of diabetes
One way of fighting diabetes is by improving insulin signaling pathways, i.e., GLUT2 and GLUT4 receptors, p-Akt, p-insulin.
In mice suffering from type-1 diabetes, Galantamine Hydrobromide reduced the immune cell action, delayed high blood sugar, and reduced the production of anti-insulin antibodies.
- It aids in the treatment of obesity
Obesity is one of the conditions that a third of the world’s population is suffering from. Taking Galantamine Hydrobromide is one of the effective ways that you could counter obesity.
When administered to rodents with high fat diet-induced obesity, it was observed that it helped lower insulin resistance, cholesterol levels, body weight as well as inflammation.
- It reduces inflammation
There are very many influences that contribute to the body experiencing inflammation. Whether it is tissue damage, infections, diet or germs, Galantamine Hydrobromide (1953-04-4) is one of the effective ways you could reverse it. It does this through the modification of adiponectin, visfatin, NF-κB, and TNF-α. Also, Galantamine Hydrobromide decreases brain inflammation.
Other than that, Galantamine Hydrobromide also works through the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which is one of the vital anti-inflammatory pathways whose function is to guard the body against prolonged exposure to systemic inflammation. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is activated by the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChR).
This activation that is brought about by Galantamine Hydrobromide could also help reduce the pro-inflammatory production of cytokine by a range of fifty to seventy-five percentages.
Additionally, Galantamine Hydrobromide suppresses systemic inflammation by reducing the breakdown of acetylcholine by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase.
- Improves cognitive function
You have probably heard of if not suffered from mild cognitive impairment (MCI). It is a stage whereby one undergoes a decline in one’s cognitive performance. Often, it leads to problems with language, memory, judgment, and thinking which are not as a result of healthy aging.
If you are suffering from this, then you may experience changes in your daily life as well as your usual activities. Fortunately, research done on Galantamine Hydrobromide confirms that at a Galantamine dosage of 4mg twice a day, it could help in increasing one’s performance in memory tasks. That includes working memory tasks and episodic face encoding.
Another study done on the same demonstrated that this nootropic supplement assisted patients with mild cognitive impairment by reducing reaction times and improving episodic memory.
What makes Galantamine very effective in improving one’s brain function is because it is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulator and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. That makes it able to counter-memory impairment in MCI subjects which could be as a result of the cholinergic malfunction.
Also, Galantamine enhances brain growth by activating the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and M1 muscarinic receptors. In rats, administration with Galantamine led to an increase in brain IGF-2 levels at 0.3-3mg/kg. That indicates that this nootropic could increase the growth of a new brain.
Another Galantamine use is in the treatment of dementia which could be caused by Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. If used during the early stage and continued for at least a year, it could help counter the loss of remembering, thinking, and reasoning skills.
If used for at least three years, it helps in limiting the cognitive decline caused by Alzheimer’s disease. It also increases the connectivity between neurons in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. That contributes to the stabilization of cognitive performance. All these suggest that there is a long term potential in using Galantamine.
By increasing the action and concentration of acetylcholine in the brain, Galantamine is beneficial in relieving some of the Alzheimer’s disease symptoms. One of the signs is the decrease in hippocampal episodic memory function caused by the β-amyloid plaques builds up, thus leading to the breakdown of cholinergic signaling.
As an Alzheimer’s disease treatment, Galantamine increases the hippocampal function (part of the brain that aids in memory and learning) by improving the cholinergic neurotransmitter function.
Galantamine could also help in reducing the amount of beta-amyloid plaques and decrease the action of astrocytes. Dementia patients could also benefit from the antidepressant effects and the quality sleep that this supplement gives.
In matters of effectiveness, Galantamine is as potent as donepezil, a cognition enhancer used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. However, Galantamine is much more cost-friendly compared to other Alzheimer’s disease medications. That makes it a good option for those who want an effective and affordable drug for the treatment of this condition.
- Induces lucid dreaming
Each one of us has had a lucid dream; it is a dream whereby you are aware that you are dreaming and maybe have some control over it. Galantamine enhances this through the alteration of the cholinergic system and the increase of acetylcholine levels in the brain.
- May reduce symptoms of autism
When Galantamine was administered alongside Risperidone to autistic children, it was observed that it improved autism symptoms, including social withdrawal, lethargy, and irritability.
It also enhances expressive language and communication in adults with autism through the stimulation of the serotonergic subsystem situated in the central nervous system (CNS).
- May aid in the treatment of schizophrenia
Increased levels of kynurenic acid are to blame for the cognitive problems associated with schizophrenia. Galantamine works by neutralizing the damaging effects caused by high kynurenic acid levels. It also improves the AMPA-mediated signaling pathway, thus protecting the brain and enhancing schizophrenics’ memory.
- Helps reduce smoking addiction
Quitting smoking is one of the problematic things smokers undergo due to the addiction it causes. One weapon that has in the past helped people beat this type of addiction is the use of Galantamine Hydrobromide powder (1953-04-4).
Smokers who were administered with Galantamine daily reported that they smoked on fewer days and their total cigarettes reduced in number compared to those that were on a placebo. That proved to be a powerful way of fighting addiction as it reduced it without combining it with any other initiatives.
- Relieves arthritis
A study done on rats with low testosterone attested that Galantamine suppresses arthritic inflammation. During Galantamine treatment, there is the appearance of dopamine in the spleen; hence substantiating claims that it provides protective action under androgen-deficient conditions.
- Protects against brain trauma
Psychotic patients who are not responding to drugs undergo electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This treatment, however, leads to cognitive impairment which could affect one’s quality of life. In the past, using the Galantamine supplement has helped protect against the loss of learning abilities when administered during and after treatment with ECT.
5. How much galantamine should I take?
When it comes to Galantamine Hydrobromide dosage, some factors that come into play. They include;
- your age
- how severe your condition is
- the condition you are getting treatment for
- other medical illnesses you have
- how you react to the first dose
The standard Galantamine Hydrobromide dosage ranges from 8mg-24mg taken once or twice daily. To lower the risk of suffering from Galantamine Hydrobromide side effects, you should start with a low dosage and gradually increase it to your target dose. The increase, however, comes in after you have observed that you are responding positively to the therapy. Always take this nootropic with plenty of fluids and never exceed 24 milligrams in a day.
In case you miss taking your dosage for more than three days while on treatment, then you may restart the medication at a low dose and increase it gradually. That helps you avoid the occurrence of Galantamine Hydrobromide side effects.
6. What are the side effects of galantamine?
Just like any drug, Galantamine Hydrobromide may lead to side effects. You will, however, notice that most of them are manageable and could be avoided if you take Galantamine HBR correctly.
Here are a number of the common side effects;
- Weight loss
- Decreased appetite
Most of these Galantamine Hydrobromide side effects are mild and disappear within a few days or weeks. In case they get severe, you could opt to talk to a physician.
Serious side effects
These Galantamine side effects rarely occur, and if they do, then you should seek doctor’s advice immediately. They include;
- Atrioventricular (AV) block-This is a condition whereby there is an issue with electric signals that are sent within the heart. Some of its symptoms include; fainting, dizziness, tiredness as well as a slow heart rate.
- Severe skin reactions like skin rash
- Trouble urinating
- Worsening of lung problems in asthmatic patients and patients suffering from other lung problems.
- Stomach ulcers and bleeding- If you have had stomach ulcers before or you are on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin, then you may be at a higher risk of suffering from this. Symptoms include; black tar-like bowel movements, blood in one’s vomit or dark vomit that appears like coffee grounds, stomach pain that won’t go away and heartburn.
- Slow heart rate and fainting.
7. Galantamine contraindications
It is necessary to know all the Galantamine contraindications to avoid getting yourself into trouble. Here are some of the warnings;
- People with stomach bleeding or ulcers
If you have in the past suffered from stomach problems, bleeding, or ulcers, then you ought to be very careful when taking the Galantamine supplement. Also, if you are on any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like naproxen or ibuprofen, you have to talk to your doctor. That is because Galantamine could increase the amount of acid in your stomach hence putting you at the risk of suffering from bleeding or stomach ulcers.
- Patients with heart problems
In case you have experienced issues with fast, slow, or irregular heart rates, then you might be at a higher possibility of having a slower heart rate or fainting if you take Galantamine.
- People with lung problems
That includes lung diseases and asthma. Taking Galantamine when you have any of these conditions could make them worse. You are therefore asked to exercise caution.
- People with liver problems
If your liver is not functioning correctly, more of this drug may stay for a prolonged period in your body. Having liver problems, therefore, mean that you risk suffering from severe side effects if you use this drug.
- Having bladder problems
In case you have had bladder problems in the past, then this drug could block your bladder, making it hard for you to urinate.
- People with epilepsy or seizures
One of the Galantamine Hydrobromide side effects is seizures. Be cautious if you have experienced them before as they could recur.
- Those that have kidney problems
If your kidneys are not working correctly, this drug could stay in your system longer. Consequently, you are at a higher risk of suffering from the side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have in the past had kidney problems.
- Women who are pregnant
Galantamine belongs to the category C pregnancy drug. That means that according to research done on animals; it causes adverse effects on the fetus once the mother takes it. Sufficient studies have not yet been done on humans to substantiate the claims that this supplement could affect the fetus.
If you are expectant or planning to conceive, talk to your doctor before taking Galantamine Hydrobromide to avoid hurting the fetus.
- For older adults
Seniors may process this drug more slowly as compared to younger people. That means that a usual dosage may stay in their system for long. A lower Galantamine Hydrobromide dosage is therefore recommended in this case.
- Women who are breastfeeding
It is not yet well-known whether this drug could be passed to an infant through breast milk. If this happens, the child could suffer from severe side effects. If you are still breastfeeding, see medical advice on whether it is safe for you to take Galantamine.
- For children
Studies have not yet been done on the safety of Galantamine’s use on children. It is, therefore, advisable that only those that are above the age of eighteen takes this medication.
Talk to your physician if you are planning to undergo any surgeries, dental, or medical procedures. That is because such medications could cause side effects.
8. Galantamine interactions
Before taking this nootropic, you ought to know the Galantamine interactions to be able to manage all your medications carefully. Here are some of the drugs that interact with Galantamine;
Drugs used in the treatment of depression
These drugs may affect the way Galantamine works when you combine their use. They include;
If you take them together with the supplement, it may not work correctly as well;
Overactive bladder medications
Motion sickness drugs
Alzheimer’s disease drugs
Taking Galantamine in combination with these drugs could increase the risk of suffering from side effects. They include;
These drugs may affect the way Galantamine works;
Urinary retention medications
Bethanechol is one of the medicines that belong to this class. It works just like Galantamine hence taking them together could increase the risk of suffering from side effects.
Succinylcholine is an example of such a drug. It also works just like Galantamine; hence, their use could induce side effects.
9. Buy galantamine powder
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Galantamine is one of the supplements that should never miss in everyone’s list of nootropics. It is more of a brain supplement not only to those that have Alzheimer’s disease but to everyone else. It is a reasonably safe nootropic since its side effects are not so common, and most of them are manageable as they come.
Having been around for quite some time, we could say that most of its traits are fully understood and you are not experimenting your body with instead you should be expecting good results. With this in mind, you should be clicking the order button!
- Galantamine Hydrobromide: G. J. Blokdijk, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2018, pages 1 – 138
- 2010 Nurse’s Drug Handbook, By & Bartlett Jones, Jones, and Bartlett Publishers, page 464-465
- Natural Small Molecule Drugs from Plants, By Guan-Hua Du, page 255