The Ultimate Comparison Guide of Racetam Nootropics

In the modern world, one of the undisputable means of survival hinges on the cranial capacity and brain functions.

Before nootropics became the mainstream smart drug, people would bank on typical stimulants such as caffeine. However, these substances exhibited short-term results. They only had stimulating effects without the potentiality of optimizing cognition.

With the onset of technology, research scientists and scholars have established nootropic benefits on both the human and animal brains. The compounds enhance memory, cognitive functions, the mental state, and also heighten the mood of the user.


What is Racetam Nootropics?

Before we dip into the details of what racetams are, we first need to figure out what they are not. Forget about your usual cup of caffeinated drink or a dose of amphetamine. Smart drug nootropics have no stimulating effects; hence, they will not leave you with anxiety, annoying jitters, or insomnia. So, if you were rummaging around for a stimulant, you’ve probably landed on a wrong page.

Racetam is a group of synthetic compounds of the nootropic family. Although these chemicals exhibit parallel functions, each of them differs from the other according to the structural formula. The only mutual things in their structures are the two pyrrolidone nucleus, consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen.

Due to differences in their orientation, racetams have varied potency, dosage, metabolism, absorption, half-life, and elimination rate.

Considering that the entire racetam group shares a chemical backbone, their mechanism of action is indistinguishable. These compounds affect the synthesis and the degradation of acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is in control of cognitive functions such as logical thinking, memory formation, and attention. Taking a racetam smart drug steps up the level of this neurotransmitter and glutamate receptors in the brain circulation. The chemical boosts the efficiency of oxygen and nutrient supply from the blood to the mental powerhouse. Due to this effect, there will be minimal brain cell degeneration but an improvement in cognition, concentration, memory, focus, and alertness.

Despite boosting the nootropic capacity, enhancing focus, and boosting energy, racetams have numerous therapeutic effects. For example, they boast excellent anticonvulsant properties, which bring down severe seizures. Besides, they are prescription medicine for Alzheimer’s disease.



Seemingly, racetam is the godfather of all other nootropics you’ve ever heard.

The existence of this smart drug came as a twist of fate through the wits of a Roman scientist, Dr. Corneliu Giurgea, and his fellow researchers. These scholars were designing a molecule, which was meant to fight motion sickness and abnormal sleep pattern.

However, the scientists established that one of the side effects of the compound was a boost in the mental state. Due to the gravity of this discovery, the team spent most of their lives investigating the role of racetam in cognitive enhancement. They came up with piracetam, as the pioneer smart drug of the racetam family.

With time, more scientists delved into the nootropic research and sought to improve the generic piracetam drug. Slight additions to the original racetam molecule have made researchers to unveil superior nootropics.


The Ultimate Comparison Guide of Racetam Nootropics


The Most Popular and Effective Racetam Nootropics

Although there are over 15 known racetams in the market, only five of them are efficient smart drug nootropics. For instance, some of them are listed as the most effective nootropics for cognition, while others are entirely reserved for medicinal applications.

Here’s a breakdown of what we shall be looking over;



Pramiracatem (68497-62-1) is up for sale under the trade name, pramistar.

This premium-grade nootropic is regarded highly, thanks to its bioavailability and potency when it comes to endurance, focus, and memory boost. According to research scientists, pramiracetam is 30 times more potent than piracetam. Not only does it protect the neural network from damage, but also repairs the system after an injury.

Let’s find out how pramiracetam works.


Pramiracetam Mechanism of Action


Once pramiracetam enters the human system, it will instantly release all the neurotransmitters in the brain. Unlike other nootropics which may only affect the cholinergic system or glutamate, this compound acts on all the available receptors.

Besides, pramiracetam affects the hippocampus such that there will be an increase in blood flow and oxygen to the entire brain. Hippocampus is responsible for memory formation and retention.


Pramiracetam Benefits


One of the exceptional pramiracetam benefits is heightened memory. Due to this property, the drug is clinically used in the treatment of attention deficits and memory loss in aging people. Also, it is a prescription drug for treating neurodegeneration, dementia, and Alzheimer’s in Italy and some European nations.

So, if you have a problem retaining memories, you can take a dose of pramiracetam as it will help you to recall events and remember people or places. In the case of brain injury, stroke, or head trauma, neurological practitioners will most likely prescribe this smart drug to restore cognitive functions. Even though you might discontinue the dosage, memory improvement will still be recorded.

Besides memory formation, this nootropic energizes the brain of the user. It causes the mental state to remain alert and in focus.

From the entire racetam group, pramiracetam is the strongest of them all. In any case, it is not comparable to memory training done on the aged population. The drug is fat-soluble. In a particular study, scholars ascertained that this nootropic snuffs out drug-induced amnesia in healthy volunteers.


Pramiracetam Dosage and Pramiracetam Stack


The maximum amount of pramiracetam powder that you can take is about 1200mg per day. This figure is to mean that you will either choose to take in three times daily at a dose of 400mg or do a 600mg pramiracetam dosage twice a day. The cycle may last up to eight weeks.

If you are starting as a newbie, ensure to stick to the lowest dose possible. In this case, 400mg/day is okay. Here, you will take 200mg in the morning and the next dose in the evening. As you schedule your pramiracetam dosage, make sure that the time intervals are equal.

In the stacking phase, you can choose to blend this racetam with other smart drugs or choline sources. The pramiracetam stack may include modafinil, adrafinil, armodafinil, aniracetam, or citicoline.


Pramiracetam Side Effects


On the negative end of the pramiracetam side effects, there will be inhibition of steroids synthesis. Failure to club it with a choline source could trigger recurrent headaches. In odd cases, there might be a feeling of nervousness or anxiety, especially with high doses.

The taste of pramiracetam is so sickening! Considering that the current mode of administration is via the mouth, you should opt for capsules. At least, this form may be a bit tolerable compared to the powder state.



This compound shares a similar chemical backbone with piracetam. However, the only difference is that phenylpiracetam powder has an additional phenyl group on its structure.

The drug was specially developed for Soviet Cosmonauts in the 1980s as a treatment for prolonged stressful conditions while in space flight. In Russia, this nootropic is obtainable as legal prescription medicine.

An inference made from animal models indicates that phenylpiracetam exhibits both anti-convulsant and anti-depressant properties. Besides, it is anxiolytic, anti-amnesic, and memory enhancer.

Phenylpiracetam (77472-70-9) is available under the brand names, phenotropil and carphedon.


Phenylpiracetam Mechanism of Action


The phenyl group in its structure makes phenylpiracetam able to navigate through the brain-blood barrier in a flash. For this reason, you will only require a small amount of the drug for you to experience the same effects felt on a typical piracetam dosage. Besides, this phenyl contributes to high bioavailability.

This compound acts by binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the brain cortical cells. As a result, there will be an increase in acetylcholine and hippocampal receptors.


Phenylpiracetam Benefits


Although there are minimal clinical studies to back up its effectiveness, a few human trials confirm clinical phenylpiracetam benefits. For example, the drug counteracts depression, traumatic brain injury, encephalopathic disorders such as brain lesions, and some glioma. In a nutshell, we confidently rule that this supplementation has excellent neuroprotective properties.

Phenylpiracetam clamps down drug-induced amnesia. It exhibits anticonvulsant properties with some general stimulating effects on the nervous system. Although phenylpiracetam is a stimulant, you should not fret as it will not bring about jitters as is the case with amphetamines and caffeine.

The drug ensures maximum resistance of the brain cells to hypoxia, stress, and any other toxic properties. Besides, it increases sensitivity and tolerability to extreme weather conditions. These factors could be the reason why phenylpiracetam was initially developed for the Russian cosmonauts.

Additionally, this compound tones down fear and anxiety. Clinically, it is also used to manage epilepsy, ADHD, stroke, or brain injury.


Phenylpiracetam Dosage and Phenylpiracetam Stack


This nootropic is not your usual cup of coffee that you’ve to take daily. The average phenylpiracetam dosage lies within 200mg to 300mg per day. Take, for example, patients suffering from stroke take a maximum of 400mg of the drug. For brain disorders, 200mg is enough to bring changes to the surface.

The oral administration is done once or twice a week. For a starter, 50mg should be okay. However, experienced users go up to 600mg.

A phenylpiracetam stack includes sulbutiamine or Alpha GPC. It is also okay if you decide to blend the nootropic with other racetams.


Phenylpiracetam Side Effects


With prolonged use, phenylpiracetam will likely cause anorexia. Also, the drug may cause dependency if you take high doses.

In some cases, users will experience difficulties in falling asleep. Besides, typical Phenylpiracetam side effects include headaches and nausea.



Noopept(GVS-111) (157115-85-0) is not necessarily a racetam because its structural formula is different from the family. However, the sole reason why we included it in our top five selections is that noopept’s mechanism of action is comparable to that of piracetam.

In the US, noopept powder it is an unscheduled substance, which lacks legal approval by the FDA. Noopept is a prodrug of cycloprolylglycine, and it’s also chemically referred to as N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester with a developmental code of GVS-111.


Noopept Mechanism of Action


Noopept directly affects the synapses in the hippocampus. Its active metabolite, cycloprolylglycine facilitate the mode of action.

The substance enhances the synthesis of anti-amyloid antibodies while trimming down the adverse effects of β-amyloid. It takes part in the regulation of the cholinergic receptors. In the cerebral cortex, noopept activates the release of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). NGF and BDNF enhance the performance of the brain and memory formation, respectively.


Noopept Benefits


Piracetam and noopept benefits are quite similar. However, this particular supplementation is quite potent. A single dose of noopept is up to 1000x stronger than the same dosage of piracetam.

This treatment offers neuroprotection by managing trauma, injury, or hypoxia in the brain tissues. It also works to improve brain functions, memory, and cognition while reducing fear and anxiety.

Clinically, noopept has beneficial effects on individuals who are predisposed to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Besides, its nootropic properties make the chemical a perfect prescription drug for patients with cognitive impairment.


Noopept Dosage and Noopept Stack


A typical noopept dosage lies within the range of 10mg to 30mg. You have to administer the dose daily by spreading it out at equal intervals per day. A cycle may last up to about eight weeks.

A noopept stack is ideal with choline, but you can also incorporate other racetams in the cycle.


Noopept Side Effects


Typical noopept side effects include headaches, fatigue, stomach problems, or sleep disturbances. To circumvent through these negative upshots, ensure to take the lowest dose possible.



Nefiracetam (77191-36-7) is chemically known as N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide.

The compound is more than your typical cognitive enhancer. To mean, it also exhibits various pharmacological functions such as treatment of dementia, Alzheimer’s, and any disorder relating to forgetfulness.


Nefiracetam Mechanism of Action


Nefiracetam powder is a potent agonist for the GABA receptors. It acts by allowing adequate blood flow to the brain. For optimum mental functions, this substance optimizes the neurotransmission of acetylcholine.

When the monoamine neurotransmitters, GABA receptors, and acetylcholine systems suffer dysfunctionality, taking nefiracetam will put them all on a normal footing.


Nefiracetam Benefits


If GABA receptor antagonists are responsible for amnesia, taking nefiracetam will counter and reverse the effect. Therefore, it is an ideal prescription drug for managing dementia, Alzheimer’s, and related cerebrovascular disorders.

For patients suffering from stroke, administering nefiracetam will enhance motivation and apathy. The smart drug alleviates psychiatric symptoms in patients battling cerebrovascular diseases.

One of the outstanding nefiracetam benefits is neuroprotection. The drug acts as an anti-depressant and an anti-convulsant.


Nefiracetam Dosage and Nefiracetam Stack


A typical nefiracetam dosage is approximately 300mg. For a starter, 100mg is fine. However, experienced users will take extreme doses of up to 1800mg.

Your nefiracetam stack ought to include a choline supplement. Just as your PC needs enough RAM to operate efficiently, so does your brain require optimum acetylcholine. Failure to moderate this neurotransmitter will most likely lead to burnouts and annoying headaches.


Nefiracetam Side Effects


A high dose increases the risks of testicular toxicity and kidney pain. These nefiracetam side effects make the supplement among the least tolerable smart drug in the racetam family. Just as is the case with most nootropics, the user will likely experience headaches.



Aniracetam is about 10x stronger than piracetam. Several studies validate its efficiency in memory enhancement regardless of whether you’re after a short-term or long-term memory.

Aniracetam (72432-10-1) is available under different brand names, including Draganon, Referan, Sarpul, Ampamet, Pergamid, and Memodrin. In most states, the substance has not received any legal status. In the US, for example, aniracetam has not yet won FDA approval. However, the drug is up for sale in Europe under a valid prescription.


Aniracetam Mechanism of Action


Aniracetam powder enters the bloodstream in a flash. However, it will linger in the human system for some time, considering that it is fat-soluble. Note that fats are not instantly broken down in the body. Once you ingest it, the compound works by regulating the AMPA receptors.

Aniracetam also targets the glutamate neurotransmitters, dopamine, and serotonin receptors. Besides, it inhibits steroid synthesis.

Once in the system, the supplement modulates brain metabolism for optimal balance. It ensures there’s enough blood supply to the CNS.


Aniracetam Benefits


This stress-reducing nootropic is more than 100 folds potent than piracetam. If you aim for productivity, aniracetam can be the perfect supplement. The compound is not only geared toward cognition, but it also enhances the sensitivity of the sensory nerves. For instance, it improves the sense of sight, smell, and taste.

In a preclinical study involving subjects with impaired cognitive functions, administering aniracetam improved both memory and brain performance. It is for this reason that the off-label use of the drug has risen a notch higher. Students seek to boost their academic grade due to the learning power of aniracetam. Conversely, business people and entrepreneurs ache for productivity and sharp minds when undertaking intense exercises.

When aniracetam modulates the AMPA receptors, the stress and depression levels will clamp down. Therefore, the mood is heightened while fear, anxiety, or social failure reduces.

Clinically, aniracetam has some neuroprotection effects. It curbs forgetfulness, which is associated with dementia or any other cerebrovascular impairment. Doctors may also prescribe it to patients with attention disorders.


Aniracetam Dosage and Aniracetam Stack


A typical aniracetam dosage is 750mg per day. However, the range lies between 600mg to 4000mg/day. You can break down the dose and administer it once, twice, or thrice a day, depending on your preference. Due to the short half-life, you’ll need to take aniracetam frequently to maintain its peak in the system.

A perfect aniracetam stack should include choline supplements. You should also consider taking aniracetam alongside fatty acids. The reason is that the drug is fat-soluble; hence, it won’t dissolve in water. In a nutshell, ensure to include at least piracetam, oxiracetam, fish oil, or vitamin in your cycle.


Aniracetam Side Effects


One of aniracetam side effects is a headache. However, this goes away if you stack the smart drug with choline supplements. Some people also register difficulties in falling asleep.

In rare instances, sensitive users may be overwhelmed by the anxiolytic properties such that they feel sedated, sleepy, or unmotivated.


The Ultimate Comparison Guide of Racetam Nootropics


Where to Buy Racetam Nootropics

Most states have regulated the use of nootropics in their jurisdictions. Therefore, it is ideal for you to familiarize with the prevailing laws governing the use of smart drugs in your country.

In Europe, for instance, you can buy racetam nootropics in a local store under a valid prescription. However, opting for an online vendor is the best and easiest choice.



Racetams have been the pioneer of nootropics and smart drugs. They are efficient in improving cognition, learning, and memory.

Although some people make a fuss of the side effects, it is quite easy to follow instructions and bypass these negative symptoms. For example, headaches are frequent among nootropic users but stacking a racetam with a choline supplement will solve the problem. Besides, beginners must start from the lowest dosage possible until their systems get used to the drug.

To be on the safe side, ensure to use a racetam nootropic that has scientific back-up, including existent clinical studies. Take, for instance; aniracetam has several supporting data from both animal and human trials. Conversely, phenylpiracetam is an exceptional deal to fall for, but it currently has no scientific endorsements.

All said and done if you want to make a right nootropics buy, ensure to do your research and understand what you need.



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  3. Malykh, A.G., and Sadaie, M.R. (2010). Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Drugs.
  4. Russ, H., Dekundy, A., and Danysz, W. (2014). Use of (r)-phenylpiracetam for the Treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
  5. Gouliaev, A.H., Senning, A. (1994). Piracetam and other Structurally Related Nootropics.
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2019-09-01 Nootropics
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